Archive for the ‘Globalization’ Category


January 19, 2009

*Dr.Ivo da Conceição Souza


The world is lying in darkness, groping for saviours. Can there be salvation from such a situation? Who will rescue us from this chaos? The same Word of God that at the beginning brought cosmos out of chaos. …

Creative Word:

The Word of God is spreading throughout the world. It has been there for millennia. It has a power of its own, because it has origin in the powerful, almighty God. This Word is a healing, liberating Word. In the academic realm and existential field it has been continually interpreted and re-interpreted. The academic-scientific interest for the biblical studies among the Catholics spread after Pius XII in his Encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu (DAS, September 30, 1943) voiced his official approval of the new, scientific approach to the Bible. This pontifical letter itself was the outgrowth of a long development, dating back to 1850, both outside and within the Catholic Church. 1 (cf.Jean LEVIE, The Word of God in Words of Men, Kennedy, New York, 1961).

The Pontiff canonized this scientifico-existential approach as a necessary way for the biblical scholarship to follow and urged Catholic students of the Bible to employ all the modern scientific means to deepen the teaching and spirituality of the ancient sacred authors (Denzinger 3831).

To read the Bible and interpret correctly the authors, we should know how to determine the sense, that is, to translate correctly their words, paying attention to phrase and sentence structure, context, peculiar style and usage.

It is not a simple task to read the Bible in spite of all romantic enthusiasm about it. It is a fallacy to say that because the Bible has been inspired for the sake of the community, everyone should be able to pick up the Bible and read it profitably. In our times, the charismatics use the Bible for their consolation and particular aims, but quite often misinterpret the biblical teachings. Often they justify this use by appealing to Jr 3l:34ab: “They no longer shall all teach one another, saying:Know the Lord, for they shall all know me from the least of them to the greatest’, whereby they argue that the charismatics can manage by themselves without the specific prophetic role of the clergy. “The priests, the pastors wanted to dominate us, we do not need them, we can praise the Lord and learn Bible without them“, exclaimed a good-looking lady in one of the charismatic meetings in New York. This lady would keep the audience in suspense for hours to come, but was not sure about the Catholic teaching herself and would go astray and mislead the “enthusiastic” participants.

We have to find out what the author meant to say, and therefore what God inspired. There is no substitute for educated effort. The inspired author wrote for the people of his times, in a different language and culture. To decipher what he meant, it requires training on our part. Because of the difference between the view of the biblical author and our own the modern reader has to be trained to understand the ancient mentality and the biblical expressions and symbolism. To discover the literal sense of the Bible, we must understand the whole background by studying auxiliary disciplines, such as geography, archaeology, textual criticism. The knowledge of the biblical languages, Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic, would help the students of theology to have a thorough, almost professional knowledge of the Scriptures. These languages have been included as compulsory in most of the seminaries, so as to get the required biblical knowledge. Systematic theology includes a lot of biblical theology understood as the exegesis and synthesis of selected biblical texts.

This philological knowledge is a means of the recognition that God has acted in particular times and places. The biblical message would have taken a different form if it had been expressed in the Indian languages. Again, this recognition is the foundation of the movement of inculturation. Contextualisation that is going on today in India is grappling with problems to be solved. Today philology is the key for philosophy and theology.

Our knowledge of the Bible should be proportionate to our general education. For instance, to read the first chapters of Genesis and understand them the modern reader should be able to distinguish between the religious teaching of the Bible about creation and the pre-scientific outlook of the author.

Another fallacy is the thesis that only the scriptural texts and passages that are most relevant to our life today are important. Today there is a legitimate quest of relevance in biblical studies, an existential approach to the Bible. But this emphasis should not take us to pragmatic vivisection and electionism, to study only those parts of the Bible that have easily convertible theological value or value for the spiritual life. This form of relevance is theologically harmful. God’s saving action for Man/humankind includes not only the spiritual and theological aspects of life, but also the secular and profane aspects (war, depravity). They show how man tried to fit the whole of his existence into the relationship with God. God’s saving action must revitalize the whole man. Biblical thought is alien to our modern dichotomy of man into “soul” and “body”, to the “atomistic individualism” of our thinking, to the modern understanding of what is religious (or spiritual) and profane. Man is “his body”, a personalized and animated body, an incarnate spirit. This is God’s creature, therefore the whole man, in his physical needs, in his intellectual development, in his psychosomatic growth, in his social intercourse. In his housing, education, status, political progress, quite as much as in his spiritual, moral, religious formation, all this can be a vehicle for God’s saving action. It is the whole man, body and soul, the man-in-the-world, the man-with-others, man in the society that must respond to God. The whole man saved in and through God’s people–this is God’s purpose, the aim of his divine plans revealed in the Scriptures.

Ethical mores recorded in the Bible are deeply rooted in the soil of the ancient Near East. Men and women of the biblical period were children of their own age and culture; their thought-patterns and ideas were coloured with the Semitic surroundings; their very language followed the rhythm of Semitic parallelism. Students of the Scriptures came to realize that lsrael and Christianity were not born in a vacuum, but that God intervened in the world. To understand well what Yahweh has done for us, we must know the life and culture of this nation, to whom He said: “You will be my own possession (segullah) among all peoples “(Ex 19:5).

The first step in the interpretation of the biblical text is to establish the literary form of the passage. If we walk into a modern library, books are classified according to the type of literature: fiction, poetry, history, biography, drama, sociology, philosophy, theology, science, computer science, library science. If we know their literary form or genre, our approach to the book becomes different. For instance, if I read two books dealing with the same historical event and one book is fiction, the other historical, I do not place them on the same footing. Thus, if I read the history of Henry VIII and the work of Shakespeare dealing with the same king, my attitude towards each of them is certainly different. When I see the film The Exorcist and read the book, my approach is surely different.

The Bible is the library of the people of God, of ancient Israel and of the first century Christian Church. lt contains diversity of literary forms which should be classified by the students. The emphasis on the literary form is called Formgeschichte. If the reader knows that the book of Jonah is a fictional didactic parable, s/he knows that the author is not giving a history of the relations of Israel and Syria, nor presenting the story of Jonah in the whale’s belly as a serious account of a true happening; nor can s/he take the statement about the sun standing still in Jos 10:13 according to the rules of strict history, but in the light of poetic license, since it is a fragment of highly poetic song. If this had been understood earlier, the “Galileo scandal” would have not taken place in the Church history. With his encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu (DAS), Pius XII voiced official approval of the modern trends in the historico-critical exegesis of the Scriptures. “Let the interpreter then, with all care and without neglecting light derived from recent endeavour to determine the peculiar character and circumstances of the sacred writer, the age in which he lived, the sources written or oral…he had recourse and the forms of expression he employed” (DS 3829; Vatican II, DV no.12).



January 13, 2009


It is a commonplace to say that through scientific-technological progress the world has become a “global village. In today’s “globalizedworld we speak of “global market”, “global capitalism”, “global culture”, global ethics, as well as of “global solidarity”. Globalization is the “mantrachanted by the print and communication media. Is it a boon or a bane, a blessing or a curse? In this paper I shall delve into the phenomenon of globalization and discuss its consequences in the societal, economic, political and cultural spheres. We shall see how we need an effort towards integration through the golden principles of subsidiarity and solidarity in today’s world. Let us define for ourselves the implications and repercussions of globalization as well as our theological challenges in years to come.

1.1: What is Globalization?

Globalization (from the Latin word globus,-i, “the globe, the earth, the world”), is a

recent term and it denotes the process of shrinking, of rendering worldwide, of opening windows and diffusing throughout the world. It can be defined as “a social process in which the constraints of geography on economic, political, social and cultural arrangements recede, in which people become increasingly aware that they are receding and in which people act accordingly”.[1]

It has emerged from the vision of the “new world order”, a concept offered by George Bush in a 1990 address to the General Assembly of the United Nations. The New Economic Policy (NEP) was introduced in July 1991 in the wake of the literal breakdown of the economy by June of 1991, by the then Finance Minister, Dr.Manmohan Singh. Today we hear high-sounding words, like liberalization, privatization, globalization (LPG).

It covers all facets of life—economic, societal, cultural and political. It is closely linked with modernization and internationalization. It means to look at the issues from a world viewpoint and to take the global dimension as a reality today. It may be imposed from outside or emerge from inside.

Globalization is basically and primarily an “economic’’ phenomenon. It is essentially “market miracle”. It consists in integrating the trade into the international market by bringing down protectionist barriers and tariffs. It is the expansion of trade, commerce and knowledge throughout the globe.

The NEP was wholeheartedly accepted after the crisis of 1991, when the repatriation of many Indians from the Arabian Gulf and rise in oil prices because of the Gulf War resulted in a balance of payments (BOP) crisis. At the heart of the NEP was the twin thrust of opening various sectors of the economy to market competition and privatizing the extensive public sector. In short, globalization is the growing integration of different countries into a world economy. Indeed, the whole world has become a “global village” (to use an iconic expression coined by M.McLuhan), with a global market.[2] But it encompasses and severely affects also the cultural, societal, ecological and political elements. One of the main lessons of globalization is that several forces operating beyond human control are transforming the world for the better or for the worse.

Different persons have taken globalization differently. In fact, the true globalization should bring about the following features: a) free flow of resources for investment from one country to another; b) free flow of goods and services without tariff restrictions; c) free flow of ideas in terms of new technology and communications, particularly electronic media; and d) free flow of people, without visa restrictions.

1.2: Grammar of Globalization:

If we analyze the structure of globalization, we find the following actants: Sender—the Capitalist Nations; Subject—the Multi-national Companies; Object—Capital Investment; Helpers—State; Opponents—Poor; and Destinataries–Rich. The poor should have been its destinataries, but they have become its opponents. Its vertical dimension is capital investment, and its horizontal dimension is profit-oriented production. Its descending power is profit-oriented invested capital and ascending power is multiplied and generated capital. Resources of enhanced productivity are diverted to the middle and upper classes. The social sector is relegated to the background. Therefore, the poor, Dalits, tribals and women suffer.

Globalization is a complex of factors that have revolutionized the world and the global community. These factors are as follows: a)Capitalism is a globalizing power; b)it controls power on those who invest capital for production; c) this power can be used to manipulate, subvert, control or by-pass religious, political, military or other power resources. It is the logic of power and imperialism that underlies all movements of globalization. We are in the semantic field of power that today generates mints and means money. There is a need of a shift from love of power to the power of love.

1.3: Historical Overview of Globalization:

Let us see its evolution. Globalization is a process that has begun from the dawn of history. The globe has been undergoing more intense social compression since the beginning of 16th century. But the more important component of the definition is the idea of an intensification of global consciousness, which is a relatively new phenomenon. It can be defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations, which link distant localities in such a way that there is a reciprocal impact on events.

Globalization has been proceeding at an uneven pace ever since the Industrial Revolution over two centuries ago. It was a relief to hear such a language, “global village”, after centuries of colonialism, political domination and economic exploitation of underdeveloped, developing countries by the powerful nations of Europe. Soon people began to sense that the powerful nations had no concern for the welfare of the colonized countries. Soon it became clear that a new form of colonialismeconomic colonialism—had begun to raise its ugly head, as we could see clearly in the Latin-American countries.

In the five century-old process of globalization we can distinguish three distinct phases: a) The first phase started with the Copernican revolution and geographical exploration of the 16th century, a precursor of colonialism. Vasco-da-Gama, Christopher Columbus and Captain Thomas Cook were pioneers of the New Worlds, just transplanting the Old World order. b) The second phase started with ex-colonial countries of Africa and Asia in 1960s, when they experienced a drain, impoverishment and exploitation by the colonialists. Here emerged the capitalist democracies and socialist one-party systems; and c) The third phase, with economic and political features, started with the fall of the command economies and the consequent weakening of the welfare states, featured by the hegemony of the market. With the collapse of the command economies, the New Economic Policy (NEP) remains the only model of globalization and the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) is its kernel–the World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) were founded at the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, held in the New Hampshire resort in Bretton Woods in July 1944.

The neo-colonial strategy of globalization, that is, the New Economic Policy (NEP), together with its mechanisms of Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAP), is essentially a search for the market by the First World. Although the concept of globalization itself came into existence in the form of trade liberalization (“tariff disarmament) in the beginning of the 20th century, it was only in the 1970s and 1980s that a progressive globalization of world economy emerged.

2.1.1: The Impact of Globalization:

If the Universe is characterized by interconnectedness, there is also interdependence among human beings and nations. It is a dialectical process that continues its course in every direction. This process encompasses local transformation in every nook and corner of the world, as well as the lateral extension of social connections across time and space. Actually, globalization is an integral part of capitalist modernization. There is no local identity that is not globally influenced. There are no more local (or nation-state) solutions that are not affected by global processes.

2.1.2: Positive Aspects of Globalization:

The process of globalization is not neutral, it can be viewed as a blessing, if we glance at its plus points. We can glean out a few positive points: 1)There is growth at every level; 2)The standard of living has risen; 3)There is freedom about what to produce and where to sell; 4)The freedom of the market is enhanced through E-market and air transport; 5)There are new opportunities (IT) to place India into the centre-stage of the world economy; 6)There are new varieties of goods and services in the market—new shopping centers, new types of consumer goods, proliferation of new brands, astonishing growth of mobile phones, computer facilities. We have finally moved ahead from the drub, regimented markets of the 70s and 80s. Opening the economy has resulted in higher rates of growth. Since this is a necessary, though perhaps not a sufficient condition to remove poverty, all citizens of free India will benefit. Either we join the world economy or we perish, shrink or sink, build up or destroy…

But the question is: Which are the threats of globalization? Who are its beneficiaries?[3]

2.2.1: Negative Aspects of Globalization:

Pauperization of Poor:

Globalization brings the world economy under one roof. The capitalistic slogan of One Economy” means free mobility of capital and labour within a geographic space. Economy is highly orchestrated so as to strengthen monopolistic capital gains as against diminution of share in wages. Labour-saving technological progress was a major factor behind the high unemployment in European Union (EU), so that the size of millionaires and billionaires went up, whereas simultaneously stark poverty and destitution increased by leaps and bounds.

Although the rich countries and multinational companies view it as the only way ahead in this New Brave World (in the expression of Aldous Huxley), it is a precarious gift –or poison under the sweet coatingof the First World countries to the Third World countries. According to the World Bank (WB) and International Market Fund (IMF) reports, the countries which have opened their borders to the global economy and trade by lowering trade tariff walls, have increased considerably their growth rates in the last twenty years. Great promises have been made by World trade Organization (WTO). But the contrary is true: Globalization has not removed poverty by free global trade. Rather, it has created more poverty at grass-root level. Powerful nations send their ‘aid’, that is, a loan at a concessional rate of interest, in order to help the developing nations to buy machinery and other products from the donor. This ‘aidbecomes ‘debt’, and in the name of debt, the WB, IMF and GATT[4] impose policies and rules on developing countries. India is facing debt crisis—having borrowed money from the WB and IMF, cannot repay it with interest. Concretely, technology and money were borrowed from rich countries, mostly as long-term loans as “foreign aid”. From the 1970s the middle class began to demand more and better quality consumer goods from Indian industry–a demand that the industrialists failed to meet, because the private sector by and large kept producing outdated goods on a foreign patent and did very little research. Most industrial research was by public institutions, but the private sector did not use these patents. As a result, consumer goods began to be imported and thus high foreign debt was the outcome of both of them. Since the State does not control or regulate the vast industrial and financial scenario, large amounts of public funds have been siphoned off. The IMF imposes stringent measures on how they have to spend and repay the loans, through ‘structural adjustments’. The ‘Structural Adjustment Programmes’ (SAP) are mechanisms to favour the rich investors. The three conditions of SAP work to the disadvantage of the poor countries: 1.In order to bring discipline in the economy, fiscal and budgetary deficit is to be dropped in phases; 2.Domestic Liberalization: Market Forces should be allowed to play freely; 3.External Liberalization: Import is to be liberalized. The consequences of SAP are as follows:

liberalization in importing goods, which means destruction of the local industries and employment. Our local products are being swept by imported goods.

liberalization in investment, which entails reduction in wages;

financial market liberalization, which leads to devaluation of currency.

poor countries seek to destroy one another by offering very competitive price for their products.

–By integrating the developing countries into the world market, the giant nations grow in income, but destroy the natural resources of the less developed countries. It affects our agriculture.

–What grows is not an economy based on production, but it is a fictitious economy, nurtured by speculation about the financial capital, stocks and shares.

In 1986, the Dunkel Draft added four new areas to the GATT terms, they are as follows: a.Agricultural Subsidy; b.Trade-related Intellectual Products ((TRIPS); c.Liberalization in Trade in Services (TRIMS); and d.Textiles and Clothing. The nations become richer, but the poor become poorer. For instance, India has to pay royalty to multi-nationals for products, like neem, which has been used in India for centuries as medicine and pesticide, since an American Pharmaceutical Company has got a patent on neem under the name of Margo-S. Free trade has to be fair trade, otherwise the poor are more and more marginalized. In the free trade and ‘marketization’ of capital—a concept coming from the English liberal economists of the 19th century, Adam Smith and David Ricardo–, not the poor and the marginalized, but the rich and the powerful pocket the profits of globalization. Dalits and Adivasis are the eternal victims. In short, there is peripheralization or marginalization of the poor and the weak. Again and again the question arises: Who are the beneficiaries?

2.2.2: Mass Media:

Modernization has generated mass media that have dissolved boundaries between distant places and times. There have been ’rabid’ changes due to rapid cultural transmission since the discovery and exploration in the 16th century. With developed technology of energy, multi-masted sailing vessels, the discovery and application of steam power, internal combustion, diesel and jet engines, and their associated technologies, distances have been overcome. We have now electrical, electronic and photographic means for the communication of information: telephone, wireless, radio, cinema, television, print media, cable and satellite TV, Internet. Hence we have a significant spurt of internationalization: trans-global colonial systems, mobility of capital, migration, tourism (‘smokeless industry’).

2.2.5: Environmental Degradation:

There is damage to the eco-system by increasing pollution and waste. Ecological balance is endangered by overusing the natural resources. A rape of the environment is taking place. Our health and survival depends on air, food and water. There is pollution of air by aeroplanes, cars and motor ships. Forests are cleared, trees are felled, over-fishing; erosion and desalinization of the soil; a hole in the ozone layer; emphasis on global rather than on local trade; small farmers are being displaced; imported junk food is preferred to the local farm produce (‘MacDonaldization of the society’); many farmers are now abandoning farming. Farmers are forced to buy genetically produced new seeds, there is relocation of companies. They can transfer tons of toxic wastes from the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries to the South and Third World countries. What is needed is atmosphere of care and clean environment for the life and survival of humanity, as it was decided in the United Nations  Confer­ence of Environment and Development (UNCED), popularly called the Earth Summit, held in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro in the first fortnight of June 1992.

2.2.6: Social Insecurity:

There is social insecurity with the displacement of labourers, exploitation of women (“de-feminization of work”),[5] marginalization and economic stagnation, exploitation of natural resources. It undermines democracy. It means less expenditure on health and education and cutting down subsidies to agriculture. It leads to poverty and violence. The worse violence is the violence of the economic system itself, which has produced terrorists, like Osama Bin Laden.

2.2.7: Erosion of Values:

Globalization is a euphemistic term. It is against the rights of the poor nations, because a)Governments sign away the rights of their citizens in favour of speculative investors and transnational corporations (TNCs). Its ‘trickle downeffects are invisible, and the claims that there has been acceleration in the growth rate, that poverty has been on the decline and that the majority of the poor is getting better-off, are baseless.[6]

b)There is erosion of wages, social welfare standards and environmental regulations for the sake of international trade.

c)There is imposition world-wide of a consumer monoculture (‘mono-culturalism”).

There is erosion of values: truth, goodness, righteousness and social justice. It deteriorates the culture of our people, particularly of the young people. In the Indian context, some of the cultural items, like the dance of the tribals, the harvest songs of the peasants, the martial arts of rural folks, are being displaced. The First World countries impose their culture on the Third World, we readily succumb to this temptation.[7]

There is corruption in the corporate world, as a result of the process of accumulation–large scale of financial scams and irregularities have plagued all countries of the world (‘corrupt capitalism’).

People are not ‘anti-globalization’—technology and travel bring us closer together. But they are anti-inequity, anti-poverty, anti-injustice, rather they are pro-solidarity, pro-environment and pro-democracy.

2.2.8: Education:

Privatization of education is an offshoot of globalization. It has positive effects—it paves the way for the growth of technical institutions; –the educational infrastructures are used to the optimum level; –improves the quality of education as the institutes compete with one another.

But it has also negative effects:–education is commercialized; –more concentration is given to the course which will fetch higher income to the institutes; –social welfare is neglected; –education becomes costly; –it widens the gap between the rich and the poor; –Indian industry failed to create jobs for the products of mass education. Globalization is harmful to education in the Indian social set-up. Economic growth has to be combined with human development, and a substantial investment made in the education, health, nutrition and hygiene of the masses.[8]

2.2.9: Communalism:

Globalization brought interaction among the nations–the capital crosses mountains and seas, societies and nations–political and cultural borders become fluid, but in fact there is a deception. The world is divided–there is a clash between religious, linguistic, regional and ethnic identities. Communalism is a misuse of religion for power and related interests.

In Bombay Riots of 1993 the unemployed youth joined the communal organizations to engineer the riots. Globalization results in shrinking of job market. Naturally, unemployment rate increases. That situation becomes the breeding ground for violence and ‘communalism’.

2.2.10: Politics:

In the ultimate analysis, globalization has become an illusion–politics dominates the scene. Since 1947, the Indian Government shifted from an economic policy of centralized planning, aimed at a distribution-oriented and social pattern of development to the New Economic Policy (NEP), in 1991, in compliance with the dictates of the WB and IMF. But the global policy has not, as we can glean from available trends, ensured genuine democratization and equitable distribution.

3.1: Biblical Reflections:

God is love (cf.1 Jn 4:8), he is Triune God, living in a continual dialogue of love. His covenant of love is the model of our life of solidarity. God is concerned about the poor, the powerless, the oppressed, the marginalized and downtrodden. He is the “avenger” (go’el) of the human rights, particularly of the helpless orphan, widow and stranger. The prophetic tradition emphasizes the central importance of justice and righteousness. It is the heart of God’s will. The wealthy people have the duty to serve the less privileged in the community, where the love of God is the rule. “Learn to do good, seek justice; correct the oppressed; defend the fatherless, plead for the widow(Is 1:17). Yahweh will establish justice on earth (Is 42:1; 49:1-9). Religion without justice is empty ritualism (cf.Is 1:27; Ho 2:19; Am 5:21-24).

In his Nazareth Manifesto, Jesus anointed with the Spirit of God came to announce the Good News to the poor and powerless (anawim, cf Lk.4:16-21, see Is 62:1f.). He came to gather together through his death-Resurrection the children of God scattered throughout the world (cf.Jn 11:52; 12:32). He is the Light of the World (Jn 1:9; 8:12). He came to save all humankind (Jn 3:16; 4:42). He sent his disciples to “all nations” (cf.Lk 24:47). The early Christian community was a community of love (cf.Acts 2:42). The Church has a universal mission, “to the ends of the earth” (Acts 1:8). The Spirit of God is given abundantly after the Resurrection, he guides the history of the Christian community (cf.Acts 2:1-13.14-36). The new horizon of universal salvation is opened through vision to Simon Peter (Acts 10:44-48, cf.v.34: “God knows no partiality”; see Rm 2:11). The Council of Jerusalem upholds the principle of global salvation (cf.Acts 15:1-35). After his conversion, Paul is sent to the Gentiles (Acts 9:15; 22:15; 26:17).

Inspired by the Gospel Beatitudes, Mahatma Gandhi offered guidelines for peace, based on ahimsa, or absolute universal love: powerful nations must give up their imperialist designs to dominate and exploit other nations; leaders and peoples of all nations should believe in the oneness of God and oneness of humankind.[9]

John Paul II has clearly spoken in favour of a globalization that is “a real human and humanizing globalization”, a “network of real solidarity which recognizes our brother in every Man”, a “globalization without marginalization”, an authentic “globalization of solidarity”.[10]

*Ivo da Conceicao Souza

[1] Cf.Malcolm Waters, Globalization, 2nd ed., Routledge, London/New York, 1995/2001, p.5.

[2] Cf.Malcolm Waters, Globalization, p.12. See also the paper of Ivo da Conceicao Souza, “Evangelization and Development in the Biblical Perspective”, Luceas 1997-1988, pp.36-47, cf.39-43.

[3] Cf. V.Arul Raj, “Trojan Horse in the Global Village”, Jeevadhara, vol.30,no.175, January 2000, pp.39-63; Nestor O.Miguez, “A Challenge to Hear the Victim’s Voice”, Jeevadhara, vol.30,no.175, January 2000, pp.107-119; D.L.Sheth, “Democracy and Globalisation in India: Post-Cold War Discourse”, Vikalp, Mumbai, vol.6, no.1, 1998, pp.31-45

[4] The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was signed in 1947, now it includes more than 110 countries. It covers international trade in goods.

[5] Cf. Vibhuti Patel, “Women’s Movement in India”, Vikalp, vol.10, no.1, 2002, pp.83-96. The Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995 has advocated gender equality in laws.

[6] Cf.Suresh Tendulkar-K.Sundaram, “Growth, trickle down effects and poverty”, Frontline, vol.2, no.10, May 18-31, 1985, pp.33-40

[7] In 1940s and 1950s capitalism of Washington represented the First World, while socialism of Moscow was the Second World. The Third World indicates the less developed countries.

[8] Cf.Ambrose Pinto, “Globalization and the Changing Ideology of Indian Higher Education”, Social Action, Oct-Dec, vol.50, no.4, 2002, pp.333-347, cf.334, 340-343

[9] See Gummadi Veeraju, Gandhian Philosophy. Its relevance Today, Decent Books, New delhi, 1999, pp.182-212, cf.198f.; Subhash Anand, “Gandhian Satyagraha: A Theological Model for India”, Vidyajyoti, vol.59, no.9, 1995, pp.561-580

[10] Cf.John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in America, No. 55; SRS 39; LE 8/5; EA 32. See Carlos Evaristo Da Gama, The Christian Struggle for a new Society, St.Pauls, Mumbai, 2001, p.102; see also Franz-Joseph Eilers, SVD, “Evangelizing Communication in the light of Ecclesia in Asia”, in: Evangelization in the Light of Ecclesia in Asia, ed.Fr.Mario Saturnino Dias, Claretian Publications, Bangalore, pp.226-245, cf.228