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2010 in review

January 2, 2011

The stats helper monkeys at WordPress.com mulled over how this blog did in 2010, and here’s a high level summary of its overall blog health:

Healthy blog!

The Blog-Health-o-Meter™ reads Fresher than ever.

Crunchy numbers

Featured image

A helper monkey made this abstract painting, inspired by your stats.

The Leaning Tower of Pisa has 296 steps to reach the top. This blog was viewed about 1,200 times in 2010. If those were steps, it would have climbed the Leaning Tower of Pisa 4 times

In 2010, there were 5 new posts, growing the total archive of this blog to 145 posts.

The busiest day of the year was November 8th with 156 views. The most popular post that day was EVANGELIZATION OF THE VILLAGE OF RAIA .

Where did they come from?

The top referring sites in 2010 were en.wordpress.com, en.search.wordpress.com, student-loan-consilidation.com, onlineeducationcollege.info, and refinancing-home.student-loan-consilidation.com.

Some visitors came searching, mostly for povitr pustok, periodos da historia de roma antiga- periodo monarquico e periodo republicano, “inaugural words: 1789 to the present”, goem suttkaecho dis, and ignazio arcamone.

Attractions in 2010

These are the posts and pages that got the most views in 2010.

1

EVANGELIZATION OF THE VILLAGE OF RAIA January 2009

2

CHANDORCHE IGORJECHO ITHIAS: January 2009
2 comments

3

Dez pragas do Egito: March 2010

4

CREATIVITY AND EMOTIONAL QUOTIENT January 2009

5

A SAINT ON THE MOVE January 2009

La Crise Moderniste

July 18, 2010

 

La crise moderniste apporte à notre esprit deux grands savants: Alfred Loisy et Georges Tyrrell. Nous pouvons voir quel était le problème: celui de la relation entre l’histoire et la tradition. L’Eglise nous enseigne que la tradition est ancrée dans l’histoire. Le christianisme est une révélation historique. Nous ne pouvons pas oublier la dimension historique de la révélation chrétienne. Nous développerons ce point plus tard.

Principales erreurs:

(1) L’existence de Dieu ne peut pas être connue et prouvée par la raison naturelle; (2) signes extérieurs de la Révélation, comme les miracles et les prophéties, ne prouvent l’origine divine de la religion chrétienne et ne sont pas adaptés à l’intelligence de l’homme moderne; (3) Le Christ n’a pas fondé une Eglise;
(4) et la structure essentielle de l’Église peut changer; (5) les dogmes de l’Eglise continuellement évoluent au fil du temps afin qu’ils puissent changer d’un sens à une autre signification; (6) la foi est un aveugle sentiment religieux qui jaillit de l’inconscient dans le cadre de l’impulsion du cœur et une volonté formés à la morale, et non pas un assentiment réel de l’intelligence à la vérité divine appris par elle d’une audience source externe.
Contexte.
L’hérésie du modernisme a été inspirée par les tendances courantes dans le protestantisme libéral et de la philosophie laïque. Il a été influencé par études du dix-neuvième siècle par Kant et Hegel, par protestante libérale des théologiens et des critiques bibliques (comme Schleiermacher et von Harnack), par les théories évolutionnistes de Darwin, et par certains mouvements politiques liberals en Europe. Les centres du modernisme ont été en France, en Angleterre, en Italie et en Allemagne. Deux de ses grandes figures ont été M.l’Abbé Alfred Loisy, théologien français et spécialiste des Ecritures, et 
George Tyrrell, un protestant d’origine irlandaise qui devint catholique et un jésuite, mais il a été rejeté par les jésuites en 1906.
L’hérésie:
Le pape Pie X a surnommé modernisme “la synthèse de toutes les hérésies.”  Modernistes vu doctrine non comme un moyen d’obtenir surnaturel connaissances, mais comme un symbole d’une réalité inconnaissable ultime ou comme un symbole de l’expression religieuse de l’homme. Parce qu’ils ne contiennent pas une véritable connaissance du surnaturel, dogmes théologiques sont relatives et peuvent adopter ou rejeter selon qu’ils exercent pouvoir sur l’imagination des gens. Les dogmes que l’on trouve productive à des sentiments religieux des gens sont admis, alors abandonnés quand ils ne se trouvent plus satisfaisants. Les dogmes peuvent ainsi changer avec le temps, soit être complètement rejetés ou réinterprétés et donné un sens différent de ce qu’ils avaient à l’origine.
Depuis dogmes ne nous donnent pas la connaissance du surnaturel et la religion est mieux considérée comme une expression de la religion de l’homme aspirations, pas de véritable connaissance objective de Dieu est possible.
Arguments intellectuels en faveur de son existence sont inutiles, comme le sont arguments fondés sur les miracles ou prophéties accomplies. Dans le moderniste point de vue, la connaissance que nous pouvons avoir de Dieu est subjective, dans individuels expériences religieuses (qui sont obligatoires pour ceux qui
les recevoient).
Puisque Dieu se trouve principalement ou exclusivement dans le cœur humain, en expérience subjective-il est profondément immanente dans le monde.
Le modernisme a une tendance à panthéisme (la doctrine selon laquelle Dieu est 
identique avec le monde ou une partie de celui-ci), en insistant sur son immanence au détriment de sa transcendance.
Parce que la théologie ne nous donne pas la connaissance du surnaturel, l’Ecriture est le mieux perçue comme une expression de profonde religieuses expérience avait par ses auteurs, mais pas comme un guide sûr à une connaissance de Dieu et ses voies. L’Écriture n’est pas exempte de l’erreur humaine et contient beaucoup symboles et du mythe. Comme elle est historiquement
fiable et fondée sur le sentiment religieux de l’homme, il existe un écart entre ce qu’il dossiers et ce qui a effectivement eu lieu.
Cet écart signifie qu’il ya une grande différence entre le glorieux
Christ, l’Église proclame (le Christ de la foi) et l’homme Jésus
qui marchait sur les collines d’Israël (le Jésus de l’histoire). Jésus n’a pas su (du moins pour certains) qu’il était le Messie ou Dieu incarné. Il n’avait pas l’intention de fonder une Eglise. Il ne donne pas la terre leadership de l’Église sur Pierre. Sauf pour le baptême et la Cène du Seigneur, le Christ n’a pas engagé de toute sacrements, et même ceux-ci ont été fortement influencés par la réflexion théologique chrétienne.
Compte tenu du fait que les dogmes théologiques sont relatifs, tous les confessions chrétiennes sont à égalité avec l’Église catholique. Même religions non-chrétiennes sont des expressions valides de l’homme religieux aspirations. Il s’ensuit que l’Église ne devrait pas avoir spéciales relations avec l’Etat et que l’État n’a aucune obligation de respecter et de promouvoir la vraie religion. Au lieu de reconnaître ouvertement que le pouvoir de l’État vient de Dieu (Romains 13:1) par Jésus-Christ (Matthieu 28:18), l’État devrait être indifférent à toutes les religions et pour les personnes sans religion.
Réponse Orthodoxe:
Bien que les revendications principales modernistes avaient déjà été censurées par Pie IX (1864) or infallibly condemned by the First” nmouseout=”this.style.backgroundColor=’#fff'”><Syllabus De Errors> (1864) ou infailliblement condamné par le Premier
Concile Vatican II (1870), dont le statut d’un concile œcuménique a été
contestée par de nombreux modernistes, il a été nécessaire pour le Magistère
prendre de nouvelles mesures.

En Décembre 1903, le pape Pie X a approuvé un décret du Saint-Office
qui a placé cinq des œuvres Loisy sur l’Index des livres interdits.
Travaux par d’autres auteurs modernistes ont été mis à l’index ainsi.

,” onmouseout=”this.style.backgroundColor=’#fff'”>En Juin 1907, le Saint-Office a publié un décret intitulé <Lamentabili>,
qui a condamné 65 propositions modernistes. Le pape Pie X a ajouté son
censure à ce document, chaque déclarant et toutes les erreurs à
condamnée et proscrite.

En Septembre le Pape a publié l’encyclique <Pascendi Dominici
, which further condemned Modernism.” onmouseout=”this.style.backgroundColor=’#fff'”>Gregis>, qui a en outre condamné le modernisme. En Novembre, il a publié
, which bound Catholics” onmouseout=”this.style.backgroundColor=’#fff'”>un motu proprio intitulé <Praestantia Scripturae>, que les catholiques liés
dans la conscience d’embrasser les décisions de la Bible Pontifical
Commission et a imposé la peine de l’excommunication de ceux qui
or .” onmouseout=”this.style.backgroundColor=’#fff'”>contredite <Lamentabili> ou <Pascendi>.

dirigeants moderniste a commencé à être excommunié. Tyrrell a été
excommunié en 1907 et Loisy en 1908.

En Septembre 1910 Pie X a publié un serment contre le modernisme, qui
tous les clercs devant le sous-diaconat, les confesseurs, les prédicateurs, pasteurs,
canons, benifice-titulaires, les professeurs de séminaire, les fonctionnaires romains
congrégations et curies épiscopales, et les supérieurs religieux ont été
tenus de prendre.

Ce serment prescrit une de rejeter les six principales erreurs énumérées
and , and to” onmouseout=”this.style.backgroundColor=’#fff'”>ci-dessus, d’affirmer et de sanction de la <Lamentabili> et <Pascendi>, et à
rejeter une variété d’autres erreurs, en particulier ceux doctrine adverse
et l’histoire (comme la différence entre le Christ de la foi et
le Jésus de l’histoire). Seulement 40 prêtres dans le monde entier a refusé de
prêter le serment anti-moderniste, qui a mis fin le moderniste
crise à court terme.

Tyrrell est mort en 1909, privant le mouvement d’un de ses centrales
piliers. En mourant il a reçu une absolution conditionnelle
(Sous condition de son mental rétracter ses erreurs, il était trop malade pour
parler) et l’extrême-onction. Son ami et partisan, Miss Maude
Petre, qui prenait soin de son comme il est mort, a refusé de prendre les
anti-moderniste serment et a été interdit de les sacrements, mais pas
formellement excommuniés. Loisy est décédé en 1940.

Dans le milieu du siècle, un brin de modernisme percé
les écrits du P.. Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, conduisant au pape Pie
” onmouseout=”this.style.backgroundColor=’#fff'”>XII 1950 encyclique <Humanae Generis.>

Parallels moderne:

À la suite de Vatican II, l’index et le serment anti-moderniste ont été
supprimé (en 1966 et 1967, respectivement). Le modernisme est réapparu
sous l’influence des théologiens et des auteurs comme Hans Kung,
Edward Schillebeeckx, et Charles Curran. Ces clercs contesté
infaillibilité papale et scripturaire, rejeté catholique enseignements moraux
(Comme sur la contraception), et a commencé à promouvoir des idées telles que
l’ordination des femmes à la prêtrise. Au fil du temps, ces personnes
ont été censurés par l’Église et interdit de se présenter
que les théologiens catholiques.

En réponse à la crise du néo-moderniste, le pape Jean Paul II, délivré en
, the first Church-wide” onmouseout=”this.style.backgroundColor=’#fff'”>1992, le <Catechism de l’Church> catholique, la première église à l’échelle
catéchisme en quatre cents années. En 1993, il a publié l’encyclique
to correct errors in Catholic moral teaching.” onmouseout=”this.style.backgroundColor=’#fff'”><Veritatis Splendor> pour corriger des erreurs dans l’enseignement moral catholique. Dans
, definitively rejecting the” onmouseout=”this.style.backgroundColor=’#fff'”>1994, il a émis <Ordinatio Sacerdotalis>, rejetant définitivement l’
idée de l’ordination des femmes. Il est dit prépare une encyclique
sur la moralité sexuelle, qui devrait réaffirmer l’enseignement donné dans
.” onmouseout=”this.style.backgroundColor=’#fff'”>Vitae> <Humanae.

           )” onmouseout=”this.style.backgroundColor=’#fff'”>Erreurs modernistes (issue de <LAMENTABILI>)

4. Le magistère de l’Église, même par des définitions dogmatiques,
ne peut pas déterminer le véritable sens des Ecritures sacrées.

5. Comme, dans le dépôt de la foi que les vérités révélées sont contenues,
en aucun respect est-il relié à l’Église de porter un jugement sur la
assertions des sciences humaines.

7. Quand l’Église proscrit des erreurs, elle ne peut exiger aucune internes
assentiment des fidèles par lequel les jugements sont publiés par son
embrassé.

11. L’inspiration divine ne pas s’étendre à toute l’Écriture sacrée, si
qu’il fortifie chaque et toute partie de celui-ci contre toute erreur.

14. Dans de nombreux récits les auteurs des Evangiles ne concernent pas tant ce qui est
vrai, comme ce qu’ils pensaient être plus profitable pour le lecteur,
Bien que fausse.

18. John, en effet, les revendications pour lui-même le caractère d’un témoin oculaire
concernant le Christ, mais en réalité il n’est rien mais une distinction
témoin de la vie chrétienne ou de la vie de l’Eglise chrétienne
à la fin du premier siècle.

25. L’assentiment de foi repose en définitive sur une accumulation de
probabilités.

27. La divinité de Jésus-Christ n’est pas prouvé par les Évangiles, mais
est un dogme que la conscience chrétienne a déduit de la notion
du Messie.

28. Quand Jésus a exercé son ministère, il ne parlait pas avec les
but de l’enseignement qu’il était le Messie, ni ses miracles
ont pour but de le prouver.

29. On peut admettre que le Christ que l’histoire présente est loin
inférieur au Christ qui est l’objet de la foi.

35. Christ n’a pas toujours eu la conscience de sa messianique
la dignité.

36. La résurrection du Sauveur n’est pas proprement un fait de la
ordre historique, mais un fait de l’ordre purement surnaturel,
ni démontré ni démontrable, et que le chrétien
conscience peu à peu par d’autres sources.

52. Il était étranger à l’esprit du Christ pour établir une Eglise en tant que
la société sur la terre à supporter pendant une longue suite de siècles, mais plutôt
dans l’esprit du Christ le royaume des cieux avec la fin de
le monde était à venir à l’heure.

53. La constitution organique de l’Église n’est pas immuable, mais
la société chrétienne, tout comme la société humaine, est en mouvement perpétuel
évolution.

55. Simon-Pierre ne soupçonnait même pas que la primauté de l’Eglise
lui a été confiée par le Christ.

64. Les progrès des sciences de la demande que les notions de
la doctrine chrétienne de Dieu, la création, la révélation, la personne du
Verbe incarné, et de la rédemption être réajusté.

65. Le catholicisme aujourd’hui ne saurait se concilier avec la vraie science
moins qu’il ne soit transformé en une sorte de christianisme non dogmatique,
qui est, dans une large et le protestantisme libéral.
 Principal Errors:

(1) God cannot be known and proved to exist by natural reason;(2)
external signs of revelation, such as miracles and prophecies, do not
prove the divine origin of the Christian religion and are not suited
to the intellect of modern man; (3) Christ did not found a Church;
(4) and the essential structure of the Church can change; (5) the
Church’s dogmas continually evolve over time so that they can change
from meaning one thing to meaning another; (6) faith is a blind
religious feeling that wells up from the subconscious under the
impulse of a heart and a will trained to morality, not a real assent
of the intellect to divine truth learned by hearing it from an
external source.

Background.

The heresy of Modernism was inspired by tendencies prevalent in
liberal Protestantism and secular philosophy. It was influenced by
nineteenth-century studies by Kant and Hegel, by liberal Protestant
theologians and biblical critics (such as Schleiermacher and von
Harnack), by the evolutionary theories of Darwin, and by certain
liberal political movements in Europe. The centers of Modernism were
in France, England, Italy, and Germany. Two of its leading figures
were Fr. Alfred Loisy, a French theologian and Scripture scholar, and
Fr. George Tyrrell, an Irish-born Protestant who became a Catholic
and a Jesuit, though he was dismissed from the Jesuits in 1906.

The heresy:

Pope Piux X dubbed Modernism “the synthesis of all heresies.”
Modernists viewed doctrine not as a means of obtaining supernatural
knowledge, but as a symbol of an unknowable ultimate reality or as a
symbol of human religious expression. Because they do not contain
genuine knowledge of the supernatural, theological dogmas are
relative and may adopted or rejected based on whether they exercise
power over people’s imaginations. Those dogmas which are found
productive to people’s religious sentiments are to be accepted, then
abandoned when they are no longer found satisfying. Dogmas may thus
change over time, either being completely rejected or re- interpreted
and given a meaning different than what they originally had.

Since dogmas do not give us knowledge of the supernatural and
religion is best viewed as an expression of human religious
aspirations, no real, objective knowledge of God is possible.
Intellectual arguments in favor of his existence are useless, as are
arguments based on miracles or fulfilled prophecies. In the Modernist
view, the only knowledge we can have of God is subjective, found in
individual religious experiences (which are binding on only those who
receive them).

Since God is found primarily or exclusively in the human heart-in
subjective experience-he is profoundly immanent in the world.
Modernism has a tendency toward pantheism (the doctrine that God is
identical with the world or a part of it), emphasizing his immanence
at the expense of his transcendence.

Because theology does not give us knowledge of the supernatural,
Scripture is best viewed as an expression of profound religious
experiences had by its authors, but not as a sure guide to a
knowledge of God and his ways. Scripture is not free from human error
and contains much symbol and myth. Since it is historically
unreliable and based on human religious sentiment, there is a gap
between what it records and what actually took place.

This gap means that there is a great difference between the glorious
Christ the Church proclaims (the Christ of faith) and the human Jesus
who walked the hills of Israel (the Jesus of history). Jesus did not
know (at least for certain) that he was the Messiah or God Incarnate.
He did not intend to found a Church. He did not bestow the earthly
leadership of this Church upon Peter. Except for baptism and the
Lord’s Supper, Christ did not institute any sacraments, and even
these have been heavily colored by Christian theological reflection.

In view of the fact that theological dogmas are relative, all
Christian denominations are equal with the Catholic Church. Even
non-Christian religions are valid expressions of man’s religious
yearnings. It follows that the Church should have no special
relationship with the state and that the state has no duty to uphold
and promote the true religion. Instead of openly acknowledging that
the state’s power comes from God (Rom. 13:1) through Jesus Christ
(Matt. 28:18), the state should be indifferent to all religions and
to those with no religion.

Orthodox response:

Although key Modernist claims had already been censured by Pius IX’s
<Syllabus of Errors> (1864) or infallibly condemned by the First
Vatican Council (1870), whose status as an ecumenical council was
challenged by many Modernists, it was necessary for the magisterium
to take new action.

In December 1903, Pope Pius X approved a decree of the Holy Office
that placed five of Loisy’s works on the Index of Forbidden Books.
Works by other Modernist authors were placed on the Index as well.

In June 1907 the Holy Office published a decree titled <Lamentabili>,
which condemned 65 Modernist propositions. Pope Pius X added his
censure to this document, declaring each and all of the errors to be
condemned and proscribed.

In September the Pope published the encyclical <Pascendi Dominici
Gregis>, which further condemned Modernism. In November he published
a motu proprio titled <Praestantia Scripturae>, which bound Catholics
in conscience to embrace the decisions of the Pontifical Biblical
Commission and imposed the penalty of excommunication on those who
contradicted <Lamentabili> or <Pascendi>.

Modernist leaders began to be excommunicated. Tyrrell was
excommunicated in 1907 and Loisy in 1908.

In September 1910 Pius X published an oath against Modernism which
all clerics before the sub-diaconate, confessors, preachers, pastors,
canons, benifice-holders, seminary professors, officials in Roman
congregations and episcopal curias, and religious superiors were
required to take.

This oath required one to reject the six principal errors listed
above, to affirm and assent to <Lamentabili> and <Pascendi>, and to
reject a variety of other errors, especially those opposing doctrine
and history (such as the difference between the Christ of faith and
the Jesus of history). Only 40 priests in the entire world refused to
take the anti-Modernist oath, which effectively ended the Modernist
crisis for the short term.

Tyrrell died in 1909, depriving the movement of one of its central
pillars. As he lay dying he was given a conditional absolution
(conditional on his mentally retracting his errors; he was too ill to
speak) and extreme unction. His friend and supporter, Miss Maude
Petre, who cared for his as he died, refused to take the
anti-Modernist oath and was barred from the sacraments, though not
formally excommunicated. Loisy died in 1940.

In the middle of the century, a strand of Modernism erupted through
the writings of Fr.  Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, leading to Pope Pius
XII’s 1950 encyclical <Humanae Generis.>

Modern Parallels:

Following Vatican II, the Index and the anti-Modernist oath were
abolished (in 1966 and 1967, respectively). Modernism reappeared
under the influence of theologians and writers such as Hans Kung,
Edward Schillebeeckx, and Charles Curran. These clerics challenged
papal and scriptural infallibility, rejected Catholic moral teachings
(such as on contraception), and began to promote ideas such as
women’s ordination to the priesthood. Over time, these individuals
were censured by the Church and prohibited from presenting themselves
as Catholic theologians.

In response to the neo-Modernist crisis, Pope John Paul II issued in
1992 the <Catechism of the Catholic Church>, the first Church-wide
catechism in four hundred years. In 1993 he released the encyclical
<Veritatis Splendor> to correct errors in Catholic moral teaching. In
1994 he issued <Ordinatio Sacerdotalis>, definitively rejecting the
idea of women’s ordination. He is said to be readying an encyclical
on sexual morality that is expected to reaffirm the teaching given in
<Humanae Vitae>.

           MODERNIST ERRORS (AS TAKEN FROM <LAMENTABILI>)

4. The magisterium of the Church, even by dogmatic definitions,
cannot determine the genuine sense of the sacred Scriptures.

5. Since in the deposit of faith only revealed truths are contained,
in no respect does it pertain to the Church to pass judgment on the
assertions of human sciences.

7. When the Church proscribes errors, she cannot exact any internal
assent of the faithful by which the judgments published by her are
embraced.

11. Divine inspiration does not so extend to all sacred Scripture so
that it fortifies each and every part of it against all error.

14. In many narratives the Gospel writers related not so much what is
true, as what they thought to be more profitable for the reader,
although false.

18. John, indeed, claims for himself the character of an eyewitness
concerning Christ, but in reality he is nothing but a distinguished
witness of the Christian life or of the life of the Christian Church
at the end of the first century.

25. The assent of faith ultimately depends on an accumulation of
probabilities.

27. The divinity of Jesus Christ is not proved from the Gospels but
is a dogma which the Christian conscience has deduced from the notion
of the Messiah.

28. When Jesus was exercising his ministry, he did not speak with the
purpose of teaching that he was the Messiah, nor did his miracles
have as their purpose to demonstrate this.

29. It may be conceded that the Christ whom history presents is far
inferior to the Christ who is the object of faith.

35. Christ did not always have the consciousness of his Messianic
dignity.

36. The resurrection of the Savior is not properly a fact of the
historical order, but a fact of the purely supernatural order,
neither demonstrated nor demonstrable, and which the Christian
conscience gradually derived from other sources.

52. It was foreign to the mind of Christ to establish a Church as a
society upon earth to endure for a long course of centuries; rather,
in the mind of Christ the kingdom of heaven together with the end of
the world was to come presently.

53. The organic constitution of the Church is not immutable, but
Christian society, just as human society, is subject to perpetual
evolution.

55. Simon Peter never even suspected that the primacy of the Church
was entrusted to him by Christ.

64. The progress of the sciences demand that the concepts of
Christian doctrine about God, creation, revelation, the person of the
incarnate Word, and redemption be readjusted.

65. Present day Catholicism cannot be reconciled with true science
unless it be transformed into a kind of non-dogmatic Christianity,
that is, into a broad and liberal Protestantism.

O Santo de Goa: “Goyencho Saib”

July 13, 2010

* Dr.Ivo da Conceição Souza

Introdução: Desde a minha infância eu ouvi da devoção dos goeses ao São Francisco Xavier. Quando eu contava sete anos de idade, eu me lembro de ter beijado os pés de São Francisco, na Basílica do Bom Jesus em Velha Goa, com grande devoção. Todos os anos as pessoas se dirigem para a novena e para a festa de São Francisco. Tanto os alfabetizados como os analfabetos o admiram imenso. Pessoas de Goa e de estados vizinhos, sejam eles hindus, muçulmanos, parses ou cristãos vem prestar-lhe homenagem. Jovens e idosos têm devoção por ele. Embora fosse filho de seu tempo e de seu meio, São Francisco ainda continua a inspirar o nosso povo hoje. Ele é um «modelo de santidade” na medida em que ele seguiu o seu Mestre, Jesus de Nazaré e trabalhou para a sociedade da época de acordo com sua vocação e convicções. Estamos felizes por ter a sua festa anual. Ele continua a ser conhecido como “GOYNCHO SAIB”. São Francisco Xavier é o Patrono do Oriente. Ele era um apóstolo do Evangelho, um fundador de comunidades cristãs. Sua vida: Francisco de Jassu Xavier nasceu em 7 de abril de 1506, no castelo de Javier (Xavier), no Reino de Navarra (hoje uma província da Espanha), de uma família nobre. Seus pais eram Don Juan y Jassu ALONDO e Dona Maria de Azpilcueta y Aznarez de Sada. Na idade de 19, Francisco estudou línguas clássicas (latim e grego), Retórica e Poesia e Filosofia na Universidade de Paris, e estava hospedado no Colégio de Santa Bárbara, na Espanha. Obteve Licenciatura em Letras e Filosofia em 15 de março de 1530, e no mesmo ano, ele dissertou sobre Aristóteles nas proximidades do Colégio Dormans-Beauvais, e levou o título de Mestre. Como estudante, ele era conhecido como uma “ponte alta”. Mas ele era como um barco sem leme. Como ele próprio revelou ao seu hospedeiro em Mylapore, Frei Gaspar Coelho, maio-agosto 1545, ele estava em má companhia dos colegas, dados à “libertinagem”, mas absteve-se do contacto com as mulheres devido ao temor de “fedorentas úlceras “, que ele viu no mestre e alunos. Ele também foi cuidadoso nas questões de fé, ameaçada pelo luteranismo. Em 15 de agosto de 1534, na capela de S. Dinis, na encosta de Montmartre, em Paris, juntamente com Francisco Inácio de Loyola, Pedro Favre, Simão Rodrigues de Azevedo, Laynez James, Afonso Salmerón e Nicolau Bobadilla dedicou sua vida ao serviço de Cristo, com os votos de castidade, pobreza e obediência. Eles foram para Veneza e desejavam visitar a Terra Santa, mas não puderam fazê-lo. Francisco foi ordenado sacerdote em Roma em 24 de junho de 1537, e celebrou sua primeira Missa em Vicenza, juntamente com seus companheiros, excepto Inácio de Loyola, que ofereceu sua Missa no dia de Natal de 1538. Eles se colocaram à disposição do Santo Padre. Quando o rei de Portugal, D. João III, pediu a Paulo III que enviasse sacerdotes para a Índia, Francisco foi chamado a Roma. Ele foi enviado para Lisboa e de lá com a missão de Paulo III, foi nomeado o “Núncio Apostólico” de Indias. Em 7 de Abril de 1541, Francisco Xavier, embarcou em Lisboa para sua viagem a Goa, onde chegou em 6 de maio de 1542 pelo navio. Durante a viagem, ele era muito compassivo e pronto para ajudar. Depois de descer às margens do rio Mandovi, ele foi para o Convento de São Francisco na Velha Goa para saudar o Bispo de Goa, D. Frey Juan de Albuquerque. Ele explicou que tinha sido enviado pelo Papa e Rei de Portugal para trabalhar pela salvação “dos incrédulos”. Ele foi vítima de uma crença de que os não-evangelizados ( “gentios”) pereceriam incondicionalmente. Ele lhe mostrou as cartas credenciais papais como um Núncio Apostólico. Método Apostolico: Depois de sua chegada a Goa, Francisco escreveu com entusiasmo a Roma: “Depois de quatro meses ou mais (da viagem de Moçambique), chegamos a Índia, Goa (quero dizer), uma cidade inteiramente de cristãos, cosa para ver, (Epistulae XavierII, I, 124, n.5), uma coisa mais notável – uma coisa para ser visto “. “Ele tem um mosteiro com muitos frades de São Francisco, uma muito boa catedral bem como muitos cânones e muitas outras igrejas. Há razão para dar muitas graças a Deus, nosso Senhor, vendo como o nome de Cristo está florescendo tão bem, em terras tao distantes e entre tantos infiéis “(EX, I, 121). O Governador Martim Afonso de Sousa pediu-lhe para residir em seu palácio, mas Francisco preferiu ficar no Hospital Real, onde dedicou-se aos doentes e leprosos do Hospital de Sao Lazaro. Ele se dedicou a pregação e catequese na igreja do Rosário. Penitentes vinham em grande numero para o Padre Francisco para a confissão na capela do hospital. Na antiga Catedral do Bispo, Francisco baptizou seu neófitos. Nos dias de semana, à tarde, Francisco visitava os prisioneiros da “Cadeia”, (situada em um lugar em frente à Catedral e o Palácio dos Vice-Reis), ensinou-lhes como se confessar, e depois ouvia normalmente a confissão geral.. A cidade é cosmopolita, com cerca de dois laques de habitantes. Havia pessoas de muitos países: Europa, África, Ceilão, Malásia e China. Muitos deles eram cristãos, a maioria mal instruída na fé e rasa na sua prática. Infelizmente o mportugueses em Goa tinham várias concubinas e escravos à sua disposição. Houve muita injustiça nos tribunais, a corrupção e usura. Francisco se mescolhava principalmente com os adultos portugueses, crianças indígenas e escravos. Francisco concebeu um novo método para atrair e instruir o povo. Ele subia e descia as ruas e praças com um sino na mão, chamando as crianças e adultos para a instrução. Começava por cantar as lições, que ele tinha rimado (em seu Catecismo, preparado por um seminarista do Colegio de Sao Paulo), e em seguida, fazia os filhos cantá-las, para que elas possam ser melhor memorizadas. Depois ele explicava cada ponto da forma mais simples, usando palavras simples e fáceis. Francisco trabalhou por um curto período de tempo em Goa, mas para sua glória devemos destacar o Colégio de São Paulo, onde o clero era formado. Havia já em 1556, cento e dez meninos, em catorze diferentes grupos nacionais de toda a Ásia e África, incluindo alguns meninos portugueses. Havia meninos de Malabar, Canara, Decao, Gujarate, Pegu e Bengala. Havia japoneses, chineses, , javaneses, Malaios (uma verdadeira multidão pentecostal). Ele estava preocupado em preparar o clero indígena de boa qualidade. Depois de cinco meses e dez dias de apostolado em Goa, Francisco foi pedido pelo governador Martim Afonso de Sousa (1542-1545) para partir Cabo Comorim (hoje Kanya Kumari). Nos fins de setembro de 1542, ele levou consigo Francisco Mancias e dois estudantes indígenas do Colégio de Sao Paulo e aterrou em Manappad em outubro de 1542, e depois foi para Tuticorin. Depois de passar um ano e três meses na Costa da Pescaria e voltando a Goa em 14 de janeiro de 1544, foi a pedido do Pe.Mestre Diego de Borba a residir no Colégio de Sao Paulo ( ‘Seminário de Santa Fé’ ). Em abril de 1545, ele partiu para Meliapur, onde escreveu o Catecismo em Tamil. Em 1548 foi nomeado Administrador do Colégio de Sao Paulo. Em 14 de abril de 1549, ele foi para o Japão. Ele voltou a Goa, para tratar de assuntos urgentes, em fevereiro de 1552. Ele foi para Malaca, em 15 de abril de 1552. Ele voltava de cerca de sete vezes a Goa, mas sempre em negócio e à pressa. Ele esteve no solo goes, ao tudo, um pouco mais de 18 meses.No tempo de São Francisco havia duas capelas, uma de Santo Antao e outra de Sao Jeronimo. O Santo costumava caminhar entre elas na meditação e êxtase. Em uma dessas ocasiões, segundo uma lenda,, ele foi ouvido, dizendo, ao contemplar o Senhor consolá-lo: “satis, Domine” ( “Chega, Senhor, e suficiente”). Ele morreu na ilha de Sangchwan (Sanchao), as portas da China, depois que ele adoeceu desde 21 de novembro de 1552, com febre alta. Ele teria desejado que seus ossos fossem levados para Goa, que foi o trampolim da sua actividade missionária. Apesar de quatro sacos de cal utilizados a fim de acelerar a decomposição, foi encontrado após dois meses e meio, em 17 de fevereiro de 1553, que o sangue ainda ia vasando. Em 14 de março de 1554, seu caixão foi trazido, através do rio Mandovi, à Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Ajuda, e no dia seguinte o corpo de Francisco foi levado para a Igreja do Colégio de Sao Paulo. Depois da canonização do Padre-Mestre Francisco, em 1622, seu corpo foi levado para a Igreja (elevada à categoria de Basílica em 1946) do Bom Jesus. Gregório XV canonizou-o em 12 de março de 1622. Sua missão: Francisco Xavier é venerado como um santo em todo o Oriente. Porque é ele tão venerado e honrado? Certamente por causa de sua generosidade em se sacrificar pelo povo durante o curto período de sua vida de quarenta e seis anos, sete meses e vinte e seis dias, dos quais ele passou dez anos e sete meses menos quatro dias na Ásia. Ele trabalhou para a educação e elevação dos pobres e oprimidos do Oriente, da Índia ao Japão. Foi em Malaca que Francisco veio a saber acerca do Japão, como ele próprio afirma: “Quando eu estava na cidade de Malaca, alguns comerciantes portuguese de alto nível me trouxeram uma grande notícia de algumas ilhas muito grandes, descobertas recentemente no Oriente, chamadas ilhas do Japão. Na opinião desses homens, haveria melhores oportunidades para o aumento da nossa santa fé lá do que em qualquer lugar na Índia, porque as pessoas têm ansia para o conhecimento e instrução, que não é o caso dos índios ” (Epistulae XavierII, I.391-392, citado em P. Rayanna, A Vida de São Francisco Xavier, p.116). Ele podia ver a diferença entre os índios e os japoneses. Ele encontrou nos índios, especialmente nos “brâmanes”, astúcia, explorando as pessoas pobres, ao passo que os japoneses eram simples e mais ágeis (cf. As Cartas e Instrução de São Francisco Xavier, trans.by M. Joseph Costelloe, Sj, p.69 , em uma carta escrita para companheiros que vivem em Roma a partir de Cochim, em 15 de janeiro de 1544; G. Schurhammer, Francisco Xavier. His Life, His Times, II, 406-410; Monumenta missionum Societatis Jesu, Epistulae St.Francisci XavierII, Aliaque eius Scripta, I, 160-167). Pio XI declarou-o em 1927, o Patrono dos missionários do mundo. Sua ‘relíquias sagradas “são mantidas em um cofre de prata em um mausoléu de mármore esculpido artisticamente na Basílica do Bom Jesus. São Francisco Xavier é o símbolo da unidade entre os povos. Há alguns equívocos sobre o Sao Francisco Xavier que contribuiu imensamente para a evangelização de Goa com a inauguraçao da Sociedade dos Jesuítas e trazendo-nos o seu zelo missionário. Mas não se pode dizer que ele foi o primeiro a trazer a fé a nossa terra, como o hino Dev Amkam Zai reza: “Bhavart amcho nhoi aicho kalcho, / Ponn Sam Fransisk Xavieracho”. Temos até aqui conhecidos e desconhecidos arautos da fé. Francisco não teve nenhum dom especial de línguas, mas ele trabalhou arduamente para aprender concani e tâmil. Conclusão: Francisco Xavier foi totalmente dedicado ao seu trabalho, determinado e firme em suas convicções. Ele aproveitou- da sua mente bem afiada, a sua ambição e a sua capacidade de organização para a edificação do Reino de Deus. Pessoas de diferentes credos, raças, culturas, ricos e pobres, jovens e velhos, se reúnem por ocasião da sua novena e festa e viver como uma família. Que possamos crescer no Espírito através do seu exemplo, como uma comunidade de amor!

Dez pragas do Egito:

March 5, 2010

Origem: As 10 pragas do Egito são as dez pestes que Deus teria enviado pelas mãos de Moisés sobre Faraó e seu povo, para que Israel fosse libertado da terra do Egito e reconhecesse a unicidade de Deus. As pragas pareceriam dirigidas às divindades egipcias específicas, como o deus Nilo, os deuses-animais, culminando com a morte do primogénito de Faraó já que este era considerado uma divindade. De acordo com a Torá, as dez pragas foram: Águas em sangue דָם Rãs צְּפַרְדֵּעַ Piolhos עָרוֹב Praga nos Animais דֶּבֶר Sarna que rebentava em úlceras שְׁחִין Saraiva בָּרָד Gafanhotos אַרְבֶּה Trevas חוֹשֶך Morte dos Primogénitos מַכַּת בְּכוֹרוֹת .

Explicação científica: Os estudiosos dizem que a história das dez pragas do Egito podem ter sido originadas de uma catástrofe ecológica que realmente pode ter acontecido. As águas do Nilo Tingem-se de Sangue A explosão do Vulcão Santorini espalhou cinzas por sobre o Egito. A lama e a fumaça que caíram sobre o rio torna quente a água do Nilo e provoca a reprodução descontrolada de algas pirrófitas que causam o fenômeno da maré vermelha colorindo as águas com cor de sangue. Rãs Cobrem a Terra A intoxicação das águas faz com que as rãs e sapos fujam do rio, espalhando-se por toda a região. Mosquitos Atormentam Homens e Animais Com a morte de muitos animais, as carcaças podres proliferam grande quantidade de moscas, além delas existe também naquela região o maruim, um pequeno mosquito de picada muito dolorosa. Moscas Escurecem o Ar e Atacam Homens e Animais Outro tipo de insecto, a mosca dos estábulos, transforma-se em praga, atacando todo tipo de mamífero que encontra. Uma Peste Atinge os Animais A peste equina africana e a peste língua-azul, doenças transmitidas pelo maruim, mataram a maioria dos mamíferos. Pústulas Cobrem Homens e Animais O mormo, uma doença equina que também ataca o homem, é transmitida pela mosca dos estábulos provocando úlceras na pele. Chuva de Granizo Destrói Plantações. O granizo pode cair nas regiões desérticas do Mediterrâneo, embora seja um fenómeno relativamente raro. Misturado com raios, da a ilusão de ser saraiva. Também se supõe que proveio do encontro entre uma massa de ar quente e uma massa de ar fria que causa ventos, chuva forte, ou tempestades eléctricas, que os egipcios poderiam interpretar como chuva de fogo. Nuvem de Gafanhotos Ataca Plantações Após a tempestade, os ventos fortes mudaram o curso dos gafanhotos etíopes. Escuridão Encobre o Sol por Três Dias Uma tempestade de areia pode durar dias e é capaz de encobrir completamente a luz do Sol. É possivel que o mesmo fenómeno que ocorreu com os raios tenha encoberto o Sol, devido às correntes de areia do deserto do Saara levantadas pelo vento. Os Primogénitos de Homens e Animais Morrem Com a escassez de alimentos, causada pela morte dos animais e peixes e a devastação das plantações.Cereais eram guardados em celeiros, ou abaixo da terra para serem protegidos da contaminação, mas já estavam contaminados por vestígios dos gafanhotos e/ou moscas dos estábulos, e junto com o forte calor os grãos podem desenvolver um tipo de fungo altamente tóxico. Como no Egito antigo os primogénitos (tanto humanos quanto dos animais) tinham a preferência na alimentação, uma tradição no egito antigo, tanto para homens quanto para animais(recebiam a primeira porção, logo a mais contaminada por ser mais vulnerável, e uma porção extra no final) como eram muitas toxinas, era possível a morte dos primogênitos. 

Cultura Popular: A Colheita do mal, um filme estrelando Hilary Swank 2007, retrata as dez pragas modernas em Louisiana, interposto mediante uma vila de cultistas satânicos. O protagonista, Katherine Winter, tenta encontrar uma explicação científica para as ocorrências, mas eventualmente tem de admitir a sua origem sobrenatural. Em 1999 o lançamento de A Múmia, Imhotep traz várias das pragas que ele pretende ser plenamente ressuscitado. Os mais notáveis são os gafanhotos, moscas e água (e, aparentemente, uísque) viragem para o sangue, furúnculos e feridas, o dilúvio de fogo e um eclipse, mas não na ordem listada no livro sagrado. Como o personagem de Imhotep é mostrado que morreu durante o reinado de início Ramsés II, o filme que implica que as pragas do Egito ocorreram durante ou antes do reinado de Seti I. Em 1998 o filme animado “O Príncipe do Egito”, disse que a história de Moisés conduzindo os hebreus do Egito, todas as dez pragas são apresentados em alguma forma, mas os piolhos e pulgas são aparentemente substituído por besouros, formigas e grilos.

Plagues of Egypt

The Ten Plagues of Egypt, also referred to as Ten Plagues (עשר המכות, Eser Ha-Makot), the Plagues of Egypt (מכות מצרים, Makot Mitzrayim), or the Biblical Plagues, are the ten calamities imposed upon Egypt by Yahweh as recounted in the Book of Exodus, Chapters 7–12, to convince Pharaoh[1] to let the poorly treated Israelite slaves go. Pharaoh did not permit this until after the tenth plague. The plagues were applied in a way to portray clearly the reality of Israel’s God, and by contrast the impotence of Egypt’s gods.[2] Some commentators have associated several of the plagues with judgment on specific gods associated with the Nile, fertility and natural phenomena.[3] According to the book of Exodus, God claims that all the gods of Egypt will be judged through the tenth and final plague:

On that same night I will pass through Egypt and strike down every firstborn-both men and animals-and I will bring judgement on all the gods of Egypt. I am the LORD
  — Exodus 12:12 (New International Version)  

The Plagues of Egypt are recognized as history by many Jews, Christians, and Muslims.

John Martin‘s painting of the plague of hail and fire (1823).

Contents

 

The Biblical narrative

The plagues as they appear in the Bible are:[4]

  1. (exodus 7:14–25˄) water turned to blood killing all fish and other water life. (Dam)
  2. (exodus 8:1–8:15˄) frogs (Tsifardeah)
  3. (exodus 8:16–19˄) lice or gnats (Kinim)
  4. (exodus 8:20–30˄) beasts or flies[5] (Arov)
  5. (exodus 9:1–7˄) disease on livestock (Dever)
  6. (exodus 9:8–12˄) unhealable boils (Shkhin)
  7. (exodus 9:13–35˄) hail mixed with fire (Barad)
  8. (exodus 10:1–20˄) locusts (Arbeh)
  9. (exodus 10:21–29˄) darkness (Choshech)
  10. (exodus 11˄,12˄) death of the first-born of all Egyptian families. (Makat b’chorot)

The first three plagues seemed to affect “all the land of Egypt,”[6] while the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 9th did not affect the children of Israel.[7] Conditions of the 8th plague are unclear. For the last plague the Torah indicates that they were only spared from the final plague by sacrificing the Paschal lamb, marking their doorpost with the lamb’s blood, and eating the roasted sacrifice together with Matzot (לחם עוני) in a celebratory feast. The Torah describes the Angel of Death as actually passing through Egypt to kill all firstborn, but passing over (hence “Passover”) houses which have the sign of lambs’ blood on the doorpost.[8][9] The night of this plague, Pharaoh finally relents and sends the Israelites away under their terms.

After the Israelites leave en masse, a departure known as The Exodus, Yahweh introduces himself by name and makes an exclusive covenant with the Israelites on the basis of this miraculous deliverance.[10] The Ten Commandments encapsulate the terms of this covenant.[11] Joshua, the successor to Moses, reminds the people of their deliverance through the plagues.[12] According to 1 Samuel, the Philistines also knew of the plagues and feared their Author.[13][14] Later, the psalmist sang of these events.[15]

The Torah[16] also relates God’s instructions to Moses that the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt must be celebrated early on the holiday of Passover (“Pesach” פסח); the rituals observed on Passover recall the events surrounding the exodus from Egypt. The Torah additionally cites God’s sparing of the Israelite firstborn as a rationale for the commandment of the redemption of the firstborn.[17] This event is also commemorated by the fast of the firstborn on the day preceding Passover but which is traditionally not observed because a siyum celebration is held which obviates the need for a fast.

It seems that the celebration of Passover waned from time to time, since other biblical books provide references to revival of the holiday.[18] For example, it was reinstated by Joshua at Gilgal,[19] by Josiah, [20] by Hezekiah[21] and, after the return from the captivity, by Ezra.[22] By the time of the Second Temple it was firmly established in Israel.

Context

The reason for the plagues appears to be at least twofold:[23] to answer Pharaoh’s taunt, “Who is Yahweh, that I should obey his voice to let Israel go?”[24] and to indelibly impress the Israelites with Yahweh’s power as an object lesson for all time, which was also meant to become known “throughout the world.”[25][26]

According to the Torah, God hardened Pharaoh’s heart so he would be strong enough to persist in his unwillingness to release the people, so that God could manifest his great power and cause it to be declared among the nations, [27] so that other people would discuss it for generations afterward.[28] In this view, the plagues were punishment for the Egyptians’ long abuse of the Israelites, as well as proof that the gods of Egypt were powerless by comparison.[29] If God triumphed over the gods of Egypt, a world power at that time, then the people of God would be strengthened in their faith, although they were a small people, and would not be tempted to follow the deities that God put to shame. Exodus portrays Yahweh explaining why he did not accomplish the freedom of the Israelites immediately:

I could have stretched forth My hand and stricken you [Pharaoh] and your people with pestilence, and you would have been effaced from the earth. Nevertheless I have spared you for this purpose: in order to show you My power and in order that My fame may resound throughout the world.
  — Exodus 9:15-16 (JPS)  

The plagues

Sarajevo Haggadah, from Barcelona, c. 1350

The following is a summary of the Biblical account of the plagues which is found in chapters 7–12 of Exodus.

Beginning of the curses: Ex. 5:1–9, 7:8–13

Moses and Aaron approached the Pharaoh, and to deliver God’s demand that the Israelite slaves be allowed to leave Egypt so that they could worship God freely. After an initial refusal by the Pharaoh, God sent Moses and Aaron back to show him a miraculous sign of warning – Moses’ staff turned into a serpent. Pharaoh’s sorcerers also turned their staffs into snakes, but Moses’s then proceeded to swallow theirs before turning back into a staff.

Plague of Blood (דָם): Ex. 7:14–25

This is what the LORD says: By this you will know that I am the LORD: With the staff that is in my hand I will strike the water of the Nile, and it will be changed into blood. The fish in the Nile will die, and the river will stink; the Egyptians will not be able to drink its water.
  — Exodus 7:17–18  

The first plague was blood. God instructed Moses to tell Aaron to raise his staff over the river Nile; all of its water turned into blood. As a result of the blood, the fish of the Nile died, filling Egypt with an awful stench. Other water resources used by the Egyptians were turned to blood as well (7:19). Pharaoh’s sorcerers demonstrated that they too could turn water into blood, and Pharaoh therefore made no concession to Moses’ demands.

Plague of Frogs (צְּפַרְדֵּעַ): Ex. 7:25–8:11

This is what the great LORD says: Let my people go, so that they may worship me. If you refuse to let them go, I will plague your whole country with frogs. The Nile will teem with frogs. They will come up into your palace and your bedroom and onto your bed, into the houses of your officials and on your people, and into your ovens and kneading troughs. The frogs will go up on you and your people and all your officials.
  — Exodus 7:1–4  

The second plague of Egypt was frogs. God commanded Moses to tell Aaron to stretch his staff over the water, and hordes of frogs came and overran Egypt. Pharaoh’s sorcerers were also able to duplicate this plague with their magic. However, since they were unable to remove it, Pharaoh was forced to grant permission for the Israelites to leave so that Moses would agree to remove the frogs. To prove that the plague was actually a divine punishment, Moses let Pharaoh choose the time that it would end. Pharaoh chose the following day, and all the frogs died the next day. Nevertheless, Pharaoh rescinded his permission, and the Israelites stayed in Egypt.

Plague of Lice: Ex. 8:16–19

Then the LORD said […] “Stretch out thy rod ,and smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt.” […] When Aaron stretched out his hand with the staff and struck the dust of the ground, lice came upon men and animals. All the dust throughout the land of Egypt became lice.
  — Exodus 8:16–17  

The third plague of Egypt was lice. God instructed Moses to tell Aaron to take his staff and strike at the dust, which turned into a mass of lice that the Egyptians could not get rid of. The Egyptian sorcerers declared that this act was “the finger of god” since they were unable to reproduce its effects with their magic. This plague killed the most people by far; bugs covered bodies in everyplace that you could not even touch.

Plague of Flies (עָרוֹב): Ex. 8:20–32

This is what the LORD says: Let my people go, so that they may worship me. If you do not let my people go, I will send swarms of flies on you and your officials, on your people and into your houses. The houses of the Egyptians will be full of flies, and even the ground where they are.
  — Exodus 8:20–21  

The fourth plague of Egypt was flies, capable of harming people and livestock. The Torah emphasizes that the arov (swarm) only came against the Egyptians, and that it did not affect the Land of Goshen (where the Israelites lived). Pharaoh asked Moses to remove this plague and promised to allow the Israelites’ freedom. However, after the plague was gone, Pharaoh “hardened his heart” and again refused to keep his promise.

The word עָרוֹב has caused a difference of opinion among traditional interpreters. The root meaning is related to mixing. While most traditional interpreters understand the plague as ‘wild animals’, Gesenius along with many modern interpreters understand the plague as a swarm of flies.[30]

Plague of Livestock Death (דֶּבֶר): Ex. 9:1–7

This is what the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, says: “Let my people go, so that they may worship me.” If you refuse to let them go and continue to hold them back, the hand of the LORD will bring a terrible plague on your livestock in the field—on your horses and donkeys and camels and on your cattle and sheep and goats.
  — Exodus 9:1–3  

The fifth plague of Egypt was an epidemic disease which exterminated the Egyptian livestock; that is, horses, donkeys, camels, cattle, sheep and goats. The Israelites’ cattle were unharmed. Once again, Pharaoh made no concessions.

Plague of Boils (שְׁחִין): Ex. 9:8–12

Then the LORD said to Moses and Aaron, “Take handfuls of soot from a furnace and have Moses toss it into the air in the presence of Pharaoh. It will become fine dust over the whole land of Egypt, and festering boils will break out on men and animals throughout the land.”
  — Exodus 9:8–9  

The sixth plague of Egypt was Shkhin. The Shkhin was a kind of skin disease, usually translated as “boils“. God commanded Moses and Aaron to each take two handfuls of soot from a furnace, which Moses scattered skyward in Pharaoh’s presence. The soot induced festering Shkhin eruptions on Egyptian people and livestock. The Egyptian sorcerers were afflicted alone else, and were unable to heal themselves, much less the rest of Egypt.

Plague of Hail (בָּרָד): Ex. 9:13–35

This is what the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, says: Let my people go, so that they may worship me, or this time I will send the full force of my plagues against you and against your officials and your people, so you may know that there is no one like me in all the earth. For by now I could have stretched out my hand and struck you and your people with a plague that would have wiped you off the earth. But I have raised you up for this very purpose, that I might show you my power and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth. You still set yourself against my people and will not let them go. Therefore, at this time tomorrow I will send the worst hailstorm that has ever fallen on Egypt, from the day it was founded till now. Give an order now to bring your livestock and everything you have in the field to a place of shelter, because the hail will fall on every man and animal that has not been brought in and is still out in the field, and they will die. […] The LORD sent thunder and hail, and lightning flashed down to the ground. So the LORD rained hail on the land of Egypt; hail fell and lightning flashed back and forth. It was the worst storm in all the land of Egypt since it had become a nation.
  — Exodus 9:13–24  

The seventh plague of Egypt was a destructive storm. God commanded Moses to stretch his staff skyward, at which point the storm commenced. It was even more evidently supernatural than the previous plagues, a powerful shower of hail intermixed with fire. The storm heavily damaged Egyptian orchards and crops, as well as people and livestock. The storm struck all of Egypt except for the Land of Goshen. Pharaoh asked Moses to remove this plague and promised to allow the Israelites to worship God in the desert, saying “This time I have sinned; God is righteous, I and my people are wicked.” As a show of God’s mastery over the world, the hail stopped as soon as Moses began praying to God. However, after the storm ceased, Pharaoh again “hardened his heart” and refused to keep his promise.

In easy terms the fire went in th water and were making peace and falling hail that was hard and big

Plague of Locusts (אַרְבֶּה): Ex. 10:1–20

This is what the LORD,the God of the Hebrews, says: ‘How long will you refuse to humble yourself before me? Let my people go, so that they may worship me. If you refuse to let them go, I will bring locusts into your country tomorrow. They will cover the face of the ground so that it cannot be seen. They will devour what little you have left after the hail, including every tree that is growing in your fields. They will fill your houses and those of all your officials and all the Egyptians—something neither your fathers nor your forefathers have ever seen from the day they settled in this land till now.
  — Exodus 10:3–6  

It began day 1 of the Hebrew Month of Shevat: The eighth plague of Egypt was locusts. Before the plague, God informed Moses that from that point on He would “harden Pharaoh’s heart,” (as promised earlier in 4:21) so that Pharaoh would not give in, and the remaining miracles (the final plagues and the splitting of the sea) would play out.

As with previous plagues, Moses came to Pharaoh and warned him of the impending plague of locusts. Pharaoh’s officials begged him to let the Israelites go rather than suffer the devastating effects of a locust-swarm, but he was still unwilling to give in. He proposed a compromise: the Israelite men would be allowed to go, while women, children and livestock would remain in Egypt. Moses repeated God’s demand that every last person and animal should go, but Pharaoh refused.

God then had Moses stretch his staff over Egypt, and a wind picked up from the east. The wind continued until the following day, when it brought a locust swarm. The swarm covered the sky, casting a shadow over Egypt. It consumed all the remaining Egyptian crops, leaving no tree or plant standing. Pharaoh again asked Moses to remove this plague and promised to allow all the Israelites to worship God in the desert. As promised, God hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not allow the Israelites to leave.

Plague of Darkness (חוֹשֶך): Ex. 10:21–29

Then the LORD said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward the sky so that darkness will spread over Egypt—darkness that can be felt.” So Moses stretched out his hand toward the sky, and total darkness covered all Egypt for three days. No one could see anyone else or leave his place for three days.
  — Exodus 10:21–23  

In the ninth plague, God commanded Moses to stretch his hands up to the sky, to bring darkness upon Egypt. This darkness was so heavy that an Egyptian could physically feel it. It lasted for three days, during which time there was light in the homes of the Israelites. Pharaoh then called to Moses and offered to let all the Israelites leave, if only the darkness would be removed from his land. However, he required that their sheep and cattle stay. Moses refused, and went on to say that before long, Pharaoh himself would offer to provide animals for sacrifice. Pharaoh, outraged, then threatened to execute Moses if he should again appear before Pharaoh. Moses replied that he would indeed not visit the Pharaoh again.

This plague was an attack aimed directly at Pharaoh’s deity Ra, the Egyptian sun god. By introducing the plague of darkness, Moses attempted to demonstrate the futility of faith in Egyptian gods.

Death of the Firstborn (מַכַּת בְּכוֹרוֹת): Ex. 11:1–12:36

This is what the LORD says: ‘About midnight I will go throughout Egypt. Every firstborn son in Egypt will die, from the firstborn son of Pharaoh, who sits on the throne, to the firstborn son of the slave girl, who is at her hand mill, and all the firstborn of the cattle as well. There will be loud wailing throughout Egypt—worse than there has ever been or ever will be again.
  — Exodus 11:4–6  

The tenth and final plague of Egypt was the death of all Egyptian first born — no one escaped, from the lowest servant to Pharaoh’s own first-born son, including first-born of livestock. Before the plague, God commanded Moses to inform all the Israelites to mark lamb‘s blood on the doorposts on every door in which case the LORD (Yahweh in Hebrew, not the angel of death as is commonly thought – see Exodus 12:12-13 and Exodus12:29) will pass over them, thus sparing all the Israelite first-borns. This was the hardest blow upon Egypt and the plague that finally convinced Pharaoh to submit, and let the Israelites go.

After this, Pharaoh, furious and saddened, ordered the Israelites to go away, taking whatever they wanted. The Israelites didn’t hesitate; and at the end of that night Moses led them out of Egypt with “arms upraised.” [31]

Interpretation

   

Traditional views

One of the noticeable features of the tales is that there appears to be an underlying pattern, the third, sixth and ninth plagues come without warning, and many biblical commentators see there as being three sets of three plagues each. Attempts to draw parallels between each have had limited success, and are somewhat disputed. Some point to Rabbi Yehuda (quoted in the Haggadah of Pesach) who implied this idea by grouping the first three, middle three and last four together with the mnemonics DE.ZA.KH. A.DA.SH. BA.A.HA.V.

Another significant feature is that some plagues, but not others, are instigated by Aaron, rather than Moses. Many critical religious commentaries resolve this situation by saying that because of the principle of Ha-karat ha-tov, Moses was obliged to appreciate the help he received earlier from the Nile, as a baby (Exodus 2:1-10), and the dust, when he murdered a guard in his youth, (Exodus 2:11–12) and was therefore unable to smite either of these.

Non-traditional views

According to the documentary hypothesis, the plagues of boils, and of lice, are merely the Priestly source‘s version of JE‘s plagues of pestilence, and of flies. The Torah is thus seen as only gaining 10 plagues when both these versions were merged together, and thus treated as separate plagues. Similar merging also allegedly explains the pattern where the third, sixth and ninth plague, come without warning, as originating from different sources to the one in which warning is provided. Likewise, in this hypothesis, one source presents Aaron as carrying out the plague, one presents Moses as their origin, and one presents God as the explicit origin, and since the plagues they each describe do not completely overlap, this provides an explanation for why Moses carries out some plagues, but Aaron carries out others. The hypothesis also breaks the account of the plagues down further.

In an historical context, the greatest candidate for the Israelite presence in Egypt is that of the Hyksos. However, rather than being slaves who escaped, the Hyksos were rulers who were chased out of Egypt. The extreme resistance, in the story, of the unnamed Pharaoh to releasing them therefore, according to such an historical-critical view, serves to provide an explanation of why an Egyptian Pharaoh so angrily chased after the Israelites.

Versions of the Jahwist and Elohist

Within the understanding of the documentary hypothesis, in the Jahwist version of the tale, Moses asks Pharaoh for the release of the people, but Pharaoh refuses, claiming not to know who Yahweh is. Consequently God sends the first plague, and Pharaoh recants, begging Moses for assistance, and immediately allowing the people to go, albeit under certain conditions. The Jahwist continues to describe Moses as insisting on the conditions, but nevertheless begging God to end the plague, which happens, but Pharaoh goes back on his word, and so God sends another plague. This pattern repeats, the Pharaoh gradually acceding to more and more conditions, until, after the death of the firstborn, Pharaoh finally accedes to all of them, even allowing the Israelites to take the ornaments of the Egyptians, begging to be blessed by Yahweh. Nevertheless, true to form, according to the Jahwist, Pharaoh goes back on his word, and chases after the released Israelites to recapture them.

By contrast, although the Elohist presents a similar set of plagues, the story is much less naturalistic. The Elohist has Moses threatening Pharaoh, and then, via his rod, carrying out each plague, until eventually he threatens to kill all the firstborn of Egypt, even giving a ritual to the Israelites so that they can cause this death to pass over their houses. At this point, the fear of Moses amongst the Egyptians reaches such a point that they are described as being insistent that the Israelites should get out of Egypt as soon as possible, before the final plague, apparently not carried out, is visited upon them. The Israelites then leave with a high hand, but are soon chased away by Pharaoh’s army.

The Elohist also splits up some of the Jahwist’s plagues, making them more elaborate,

  • Making the plague of the river, which in the Jahwist, involves the smiting of the river, leading to the death of the fish, and subsequent swarms of frogs seven days later, into two plagues, one involving the river turning into blood, and a separate involving swarms of frogs
  • Making the plague of hail, which in the Jahwist, is a pestilence attacking everything in the fields, crops and cattle, into two plagues, one involving the cattle being attacked by a pestilence, and the other involving hail and fire against the crops.
  • Making the plague of locusts, which, in the Jahwist, is so great that it covers the land, into a plague of locusts, and a later plague of darkness.

While the Jahwist’s presentation of the plagues is much more naturalistic, the plagues just happening, and Moses just praying that they end, it is the Elohist description of the Egyptians’ motive in chasing after the Israelites that accords better with an identification of the Israelites as the Hyksos. Generally, in critical scholarship, both these versions are seen as being based on a shared tradition, rather than one taking precedence over the other, with the Elohist seeking to spin Moses as having supernatural powers and the Israelites as being chased because they are feared, rather than hated like the Hyksos.

Versions of the Priestly source and JE

When combined into JE, the story becomes one in which Moses threatened the plague, then made a sign at which God carries the plague out, and then is from time to time asked by Pharaoh for forgiveness, at which point the plague is undone. While the Elohist produced 8 plagues, and thus so did JE, the Jahwists conception, of there being 5 plagues, appears to have been a tradition preserved at least until the Priestly source, who, in writing their own version of JE, also chose 5 plagues, cutting out the plagues of locusts, darkness, and hail.

The Priestly source, however, completely changes the framing of the plagues. Instead of threats to Pharaoh, or punishment for which Pharaoh begs forgiveness, the plagues are presented merely as a trial to prove Yahweh’s authority. Each plague is followed by the magicians attempting to duplicate the plague, succeeding on the first two, leading to Pharaoh hardening his heart. The second pair of plagues are also made more immediate and relevant to the magicians, these plagues are of lice rather than flies, and of boils rather than an unspecified pestilence, leading to the magicians being unable to perform these activities. The final plague, the death of firstborn, is also altered to appear as a punishment for the Egyptians.

The Priestly source, keen to assert God as only acting via the Aaronid priesthood, also describes Aaron as being the one instigating the plagues, starting, “And The LORD said unto Moses, Say unto Aaron”, whereas it is always Moses who is involved in either carrying out, or stopping, the plagues in JE.

The Plagues in the Quran

The Quran presents few descriptions of the plagues of Egypt, most notably

(VII.133, 136, Pickthall) “We sent them the flood and the locusts and the vermin and the frogs and the blood … therefore we drowned them in the sea: because they denied Our revelations and were heedless of them.”

(XXIX, 39–40, Ali) “(Remember also) Qarun, Pharaoh and Haman: there came to them Moses with clear signs, but they behaved with insolence on the earth; yet they could not overreach (Us). Each one of them we seized for his crime: of them, against some we sent a violent tornado (with showers of stones); some we caught by a (mighty) blast; some we caused the earth to swallow up; and some we drowned (in the waters): it was not Allah who injured (and oppressed) them: they injured (and oppressed) their own souls.”

Historicity

Secular thinkers believe the plague stories are simply mythical or allegorical, or inspired by passed-down accounts of disconnected natural disasters. Others have speculated on possible natural inspirations behind the story of the succession of plagues.

Archaeology

There is archaeological material that some Christian archaeologists, such as William F. Albright, have considered historical evidence of the Ten Plagues; for example, an ancient water-trough found in El Arish bears hieroglyphic markings detailing a period of darkness. Albright, and other Christian archaeologists have claimed that such evidence, as well as careful study of the areas ostensibly traveled by the Israelites after the Exodus, make discounting the biblical account untenable. The Egyptian Ipuwer papyrus describes a series of calamities befalling Egypt, including a river turned to blood, men behaving as wild ibises, and the land generally turned upside down. However, this is usually thought to describe a general and long term ecological disaster lasting for a period of decades, such as that which destroyed the Old Kingdom. The document is usually dated to the end of the Middle Kingdom, or more rarely, to its beginning, fitting the Old Kingdom destruction, but in both cases long before the usual theorized dates for the Exodus.

Immanuel Velikovsky decided that the Egyptian papyrus did, in fact, describe the events of Exodus, along with the major natural catastrophes that he thought preceded it; in his opinion[32] it was the conventional chronologies of Egypt that were wrong by several hundred years.

Natural explanations

As noted above, some science writers and Bible researchers have suggested that the plagues were passed-down accounts of ordinary natural disasters, and not supernatural miracles. Natural explanations have been suggested for most of the phenomena:

  • (plague 1—water turned into blood, fish died)
    • The redness in the Nile could have actually been pollution caused by volcanic activity, specifically that of Santorini, which erupted around 1500 B.C. and whose ash is found in the Nile region. The silt could make the Nile turn blood red, and would also render it undrinkable. Heavy rains in the red-soiled area of Lake Victoria could have caused reddened water to wash downstream.
    • Alternatively, a red toxic algal bloom (red tide) could have produced large quantities of toxins that would kill fish.
  • (plague 2—frogs) Any blight on the water that killed fish also would have caused frogs to leave the river and probably die.
  • (plagues 3 and 4—biting insects and flies) The lack of frogs in the river would have let insect populations, normally kept in check by the frogs, increase massively.
  • (plagues 5 and 6—livestock disease and boils) There are biting flies in the region which transmit livestock diseases; a sudden increase in their number could spark epidemics.
  • (plague 7—fiery hail) Volcanic activity not only brings with it ash, but brimstone, and also alters the weather system, occasionally producing hail. Hail could also have occurred as a completely independent natural weather event, with accompanying lightning as the “fire”.
  • (plague 8—locusts) The weight of hail will destroy most crops, leaving several insects and other animals without a normal food source. The remaining crops therefore would become targeted heavily, and thus be destroyed by swarms of locusts which would otherwise be distributed rather thinly. Or the locusts could have increased because of a lack of predators. Even without these explanations, swarms of locusts are not uncommon today.
  • (plague 9—darkness) There could be several causes for unusual darkness: a solar eclipse, a sandstorm, volcanic ash, or simply swarms of locusts large enough to block out the sun.
  • (plague 10—death of the firstborn)
    • If the last plague indeed selectively tended to affect the firstborn, it could be due to food polluted during the time of darkness, either by locusts or by the black mold Cladosporium. When people emerged after the darkness, the firstborn would be given priority, as was usual, and would consequently be more likely to be affected by any toxin or disease carried by the food. Meanwhile, the Israelites ate food prepared and eaten very quickly which would have made it less likely to be infected.
    • The word we know as “firstborn” may have meant the higher social class rather than literally the eldest sons, but the same argument applies.[33]
    • In the 2006 documentary Exodus Decoded, Jewish Canadian filmmaker Simcha Jacobovici hypothesised the selectiveness of the tenth plague was under the circumstances similar to the 1986 disaster of Lake Nyos that is related to geological activities that caused the previous plagues in a related chain of events. The hypothesis was that the plagues took place shortly after the eruption of Thera (now known as Santorini), which happened some time between 1550 BCE and 1650 BCE, and recently narrowed to between 1627–1600 BCE, with a 95% probability of accuracy. Jacobovici however places the eruption in 1500 BCE. According to the documentary, the eruption sets off a chain of events resulting in the plagues and eventually the killing of the first born. Jacobovici suggests that the first borns in ancient Egypt had the privilege to sleep close to the floor while other children slept on higher ground or even on roofs. This view, however, is not supported by any archaeological or historical evidence. As in Lake Nyos, when carbon dioxide or other toxic gases escape the surface tension of a nearby waterbody because of either geological activity or over-saturation, the gas, being heavier than air, “flooded” the nearby area displacing oxygen and killing those who were in its path. Jewish households escaped the fate because they were told to observe their first Passover rituals.

A volcanic eruption which happened in antiquity and could have caused some of the plagues if it occurred at the right time is the eruption of the Thera volcano 650 miles to the northwest of Egypt. Controversially dated to about 1628 BC, this eruption is one of the largest on record, rivaling that of Tambora, which resulted in 1816’s Year Without a Summer. The enormous global impact of this eruption has been recorded in an ash layer deposit found in the Nile delta, tree ring frost scars in the bristlecone pines of the western United States, and a coating of ash in the Greenland ice caps, all dated to the same time and with the same chemical fingerprint as the ash from Thera.

However, all estimates of the date of this eruption are hundreds of years before the Exodus is believed to have taken place; thus the eruption can only have caused some of the plagues if one or other of the dates is wrong, or if the plagues did not actually immediately precede the Exodus.

Following the assumption that at least some of the details are accurately reported, many modern Jews believe that some of the plagues were indeed natural disasters, but argue for the fact that, since they followed one another with such uncommon rapidity, “God’s hand was behind them”. Indeed, several Biblical commentators (Nachmanides and, more recently, Rabbi Yaakov Kamenetzky) have pointed out that, for the plagues to be a real test of faith, they had to contain an element leading to religious doubt.

In his book The Plagues of Egypt: Archaeology, History, and Science Look at the Bible, Siro Igino Trevisanato explores the theory that the plagues were initially caused by the Santorini eruption in Greece. His hypothesis considers a two-stage eruption over a time of a bit less than two years. His studies place the first eruption in 1602 BC, when volcanic ash taints the Nile, causing the first plague and forming a catalyst for many of the subsequent plagues. In 1600 BC, the plume of a Santorini eruption caused the ninth plague, the days of darkness. Trevisanato hypothesizes that the Egyptians (at that time under the occupation of Hyksos), resorted to human sacrifice in an attempt to appease the gods, for they had viewed the ninth plague as a precursor to more. This human sacrifice became known as the tenth plague.[34]

In an article published in 1996, physician-epidemiologist John S. Marr and co-author Curt Malloy integrated biblical, historical and Egyptological sources with modern scientific conjectures in a comprehensive review of natural explanations for the ten plagues, postulating their own specific explanations for the third, fourth, fifth, sixth, and tenth plagues. Their explanation also accounted for the apparent selectiveness of the plagues, as implied in the Bible. The paper served as the basis for a widely acclaimed website and for a documentary aired on the Learning Channel from 1998 to 2005. [35]

Controversy on justification of the tenth plague

The last plague has been depicted by critics as a cruel and unjustifiable punishment against the Egyptians, and is criticized for promoting an unethical Schadenfreude (“pleasure taken from someone else’s misfortune”). A common and widely accepted Jewish Midrash explains the dreadful plague by expanding upon Exodus 10:28, where Pharaoh threatens to kill Moses:

When Moses went to Pharaoh to demand of him that he let the people go, the whole event is happening in front of Pharaoh‘s first born son who teases and mocks his father for allowing the Hebrew shepherd to humiliate him. Enraged by the insult and mad with pride, Pharaoh resolved to have revenge for the plagues, and told Moses that he shall deal with the Hebrews in such a manner that a great cry will be heard in Egypt, such that has never been heard before. This was an allusion to the crimes of his father, who ordered the drowning of the male children of the Hebrews. Therefore, Pharaoh brought this harsh punishment upon his own people. His cruel plan was turned back upon him, so that what Pharaoh wanted to do to the Hebrews, God made to happen to him.

This Midrash justifies the last plague with two main arguments:

  • Retribution in kind מידה כנגד מידה (Mida ke-neged mida): in the Bible the punishment fits to the crime, not only in severity, but also in symbolism. This is for a pedagogic reason: so that everyone, including the sinner himself, shall know why he has been punished by God.
  • Self defence הקם להרגך, השכם להורגו (Ha-kam le-horgecha hashkem le-horgo): Pharaoh planned to slaughter all Hebrew children. By inflicting upon Pharaoh the same thing he planned for the Hebrews, his plan was thwarted.

Under this rationale, it can be seen that God is basically committing the same “evil” that Pharaoh intended to commit. By sending a plague that will kill innocent Egyptian children, God is performing that for which Pharaoh deserved punishment – a crime Pharaoh had not yet committed, but fully intended to.

Some scholars, however, disagree with the interpretation of this plague which emphasizes children, and focus rather on the “first-born” aspect of the plague. As was typical in cultures of the time (and is seen many times in the Old Testament), the custom was for the first-born son to be the major inheritor, from the lowest strata of society to the throne of Pharaoh itself; and thus the first-born sons of Egypt would embody the leadership of the families of the nation. In addition, according to this interpretation, the priests of Egypt were largely first-born sons. Thus, in this view, the first-born sons of Egypt were in fact the decision makers, and communally responsible for the deeds of the nation, good or evil. [33]

Popular culture

  • The 1956 film The Ten Commandments depicts the plagues of Blood, Hail, Darkness, and Death of the Firstborn, and alludes to Frogs, Boils and Flies, but omits those of Lice, Death of Cattle, and Locusts. According to the commentary track in the DVD version of the film, DeMille was aware of all the natural explanations for the plagues, and has Ramses recite them to debunk the idea that God is responsible. The film omits the funnel-cloud that guided the people out of Egypt, using a funnel-cloud of fire before nightfall; the Bible has a ‘pillar of cloud’ by day and a ‘pillar of fire’ only at night. William Whiston (translator of Josephus) claimed a comet caused this. Researchers must also note the rise and set of the full moon in the clear sky over the Israelites as a source of light.
  • The Ten Plagues of Egypt were dramatized by the heavy metal group Metallica in their song “Creeping Death“, on their 1984 release Ride the Lightning. Late bassist Cliff Burton came up with the title of the song while watching the 1956 Biblical epic The Ten Commandments, specifically when the Angel of Death moved among Egyptians, killing the firstborn in each family. The plagues were also dramatized (albeit diverging somewhat from the canonical list) as part of a modern horror film in The Abominable Dr. Phibes (1971).
  • The band Lars Frederiksen and the Bastards have the song “Ten Plagues of Egypt” on their first self titled album.
  • The Reaping, a 2007 film starring Hilary Swank, depicts the Ten Plagues in modern Louisiana, brought upon a town of satanic cultists. The protagonist, Katherine Winter, tries to find a scientific explanation to the occurrences but eventually has to admit to their supernatural origin.
  • In the 1999 release of The Mummy, Imhotep brings about several of the plagues as he seeks to be fully resurrected. The most notable are the locusts, flies and gnats, water (and apparently whiskey) turning to blood, boils and sores, the hailstorm of fire and an eclipse, but not in the order listed in the holy books. As the character of Imhotep is shown to have died during the early reign of Ramesses II, the film implies that the Plagues of Egypt occurred during or before the reign of Seti I.
  • In the 1998 animated film The Prince of Egypt, which told the story of Moses leading the Hebrews out of Egypt, all ten plagues are shown in some form, but the lice and fleas are seemingly replaced by beetles, ants and crickets.
  • In the 1999 film Magnolia by Paul Thomas Anderson, Exodus 8:2 and the plague of frogs is referenced frequently.
  • In Charles R. Pellegrino‘s novel Dust, many of the Ten Plagues are given a scientific basis as part of the 33-million-year cycle of extinction events on Earth.
  • The song “Pray for Plagues” by the band Bring Me The Horizon references the first and tenth plagues extensively.
  • The song “Hope for a Higher Power” by Tech N9NE also mentions all of the plagues.
  • Philippine drama series May Bukas Pa on ABS-CBN began integrating the plagues into the series about a young boy who speaks to Jesus and has the power to heal.

Literature

  • Hermann and Anna Levinson: Zur Biologie der zehn biblischen Plagen DGaaE Nachrichten 22 (2008), 83–102 (German)

References

  1. ^ possibly Ramesses II, making the pharaoh of the Oppresion Horemheb
  2. ^ Plagues of Egypt, in New Bible Dictionary, second edition. 1987. Douglas JD, Hillyer N, eds., Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Wheaton, IL, USA ISBN 0842346678
  3. ^ Commentary on Exodus 7, The Jewish Study Bible, 2004. Berlin A and Brettler M, eds., Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195297512
  4. ^ The Ten Plagues, in Illustrated Dictionary & Concordance of the Bible, 1986. Wigoder G, Paul S, Viviano B, Stern E, eds., G.G. Jerusalem Publishing House Ltd. And Reader’s Digest Association, Inc. ISBN 0895774070
  5. ^ Rabbi Samuel ben Meir on Exodus 8:17
  6. ^ Exodus 7:21, 8:2, 8:16
  7. ^ Ex. 8:22, 9:4,11,26, 10:23
  8. ^ Passover, New Bible Dictionary, second edition. 1987. Douglas JD, Hillyer N, eds., Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Wheaton, IL, USA ISBN 0842346678
  9. ^ Passover, Illustrated Dictionary & Concordance of the Bible, 1986. Wigoder G, Paul S, Viviano B, Stern E, eds., G.G. Jerusalem Publishing House Ltd. And Reader’s Digest Association, Inc. ISBN 0895774070
  10. ^ Moses, The World Book Encyclopedia, 1998. World Book Incorporated ISBN 0716600986
  11. ^ Exodus 20
  12. ^ Joshua 24
  13. ^ 1 Samuel 4:7-9
  14. ^ Plagues of Egypt, New Bible Dictionary, second edition. 1987. Douglas JD, Hillyer N, eds., Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Wheaton, IL, USA ISBN 0842346678
  15. ^ Psalm 78:43-51
  16. ^ Exodus 12, Leviticus 23, Numbers 9, Deuteronomy 16
  17. ^ Exodus 13:11–16
  18. ^ Passover, Illustrated Dictionary & Concordance of the Bible, 1986. Wigoder G, Paul S, Viviano B, Stern E, eds., G.G. Jerusalem Publishing House Ltd. And Reader’s Digest Association, Inc. ISBN 0895774070
  19. ^ Joshua 5:0-12
  20. ^ II Kings 23:21-23
  21. ^ II Chronicles 30:5
  22. ^ Ezra 6:9
  23. ^ The Ten Plagues, Dictionary & Concordance)
  24. ^ Exodus 5:2
  25. ^ Exodus 9:15-16
  26. ^ see also the commentary on Exodus 10:1-2, The Jewish Study Bible, 2004. Berlin A and Brettler M, eds., Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195297512
  27. ^ Ex. 9:14, 16
  28. ^ Joshua 2:9–11; 9:9; Isaiah 4:8; 6:6
  29. ^ Ex. 12:12; Nu. 33:4
  30. ^ Gesenius’s Lexicon, עָרוֹב
  31. ^ Exodus 14:8
  32. ^ Velikovsky, Immanuel, The Dark Age Of Greece, http://www.varchive.org/dag/reconst.htm 
  33. ^ a b Becher, Mordechai (2005). “Zero to Thirteen: Redemption of the Firstborn – Pidyon Haben”. Gateway to Judaism: the what, how, and why of Jewish life. Mesorah Publications. pp. 46. ISBN 1422600300. http://books.google.com/books?id=oohY_3hMFS8C&pg=PA46&lpg=PA46&dq=plague+firstborn+leaders+of+egypt&source=web&ots=KXK9PiOH_6&sig=b2jiAD_BbNWEuRn3c4dd9L2hEcw. “Some scholars explain that the firstborn were generally the leaders of each family, as well as the priests of the Egyptian religion. Since they were the moral and cultural role models and leaders of Egypt, they were most responsible for the evils that were perpetrated against the Jews.” 
  34. ^ The Plagues of Egypt: Archaeology, History, and Science Look at the Bible, by Siro Igino Trevisanato : Georgia Press LLC, 2005
  35. ^ Marr JS, Malloy CD. An epidemiologic analysis of the ten plagues of Egypt. Caduceus (Springfield, Ill. 1996 Spring;12(1):7–24. See http://www.plaguescapes.com

 

Piaghe d’Egitto

Vai a: Navigazione, cerca

Con Piaghe d’Egitto ci si riferisce a quelle punizioni che, secondo la Bibbia, Dio inflisse agli egiziani prima che Mosè liberasse gli Israeliti, il popolo di Israele, dalla loro schiavitù.

Indice

Interpretazione

Nel libro dell’Esodo si racconta l’uscita degli Ebrei dall’Egitto sotto la guida di Mosè. Uno degli episodi più controversi di questo libro è proprio l’invio delle piaghe (punizioni divine) contro il popolo egiziano. Gli scopi delle dieci piaghe sono due: convincere il faraone a liberare dalla schiavitù gli ebrei e dimostrare la grandezza del Signore agli occhi del popolo egiziano, come chiaramente dichiarato in questo passo, in cui Dio si rivolge a Mosè: “Ma io indurirò il cuore del faraone e moltiplicherò i miei segni e i miei prodigi nel paese d’Egitto. Il faraone non vi ascolterà e io porrò la mano contro l’Egitto e farò così uscire dal paese d’Egitto le mie schiere, il mio popolo degli Israeliti, con l’intervento di grandi castighi. Allora gli Egiziani sapranno che io sono il Signore, quando stenderò la mano contro l’Egitto e farò uscire di mezzo a loro gli Israeliti!7,4-5. Luca

Le dieci piaghe d’Egitto

  1. Tramutazione dell’acqua in sangue (Es7,14-25)
  2. Invasione di rane (Es7,26-8,11)
  3. Invasione di pidocchi (kinim) (Es7,26-8,11)
  4. Invasione di mosconi (Es8,12-15)
  5. Moria del bestiame (Es9,1-7)
  6. Ulcere su animali e uomini (Es9,1-7)
  7. Grandine (Es9,13-35)
  8. Invasione di cavallette (Es10,1-20)
  9. Tenebre (Es10,21-29)
  10. Morte dei primogeniti (Es12,29-30)

Film che citano le dieci piaghe

Nonostante il fatto che spesso le dieci piaghe d’Egitto vengono citate individualmente in opere cinematografiche, sono sostanzialmente pochi i film che le utilizzano come elemento conduttore della trama e, in alcuni casi, si tratta di film horror.

Estratto da “http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piaghe_d%27Egitto

 Dix plaies d’Égypte

 

Les dix plaies d’Égypte sont les dix châtiments que, selon le Livre de l’Exode, Dieu inflige à l’Égypte pour convaincre Pharaon de laisser partir le peuple d’Israël :

  1. Les eaux du fleuve changées en sang : « […] Le Nil fut nauséabond, et les Égyptiens ne purent boire des eaux depuis le fleuve […] » (Exode 7:14-25)
  2. Les grenouilles : « […] les grenouilles montèrent et recouvrirent l’Égypte […] » (Exode 8:1-25)
  3. Les moustiques : « […] toute la poussière du sol se changea en moustiques […] » (Exode 8:16-19)
  4. Les mouches ou les bêtes sauvages : « […] des taons/ bêtes sauvages en grand nombre entrèrent […] dans tout le pays d’Égypte […] » (Exode 8:20-32)
  5. La mort des troupeaux : « […] tous les troupeaux des égyptiens moururent […] » (Exode 9:1-7)
  6. Les ulcères : « […] gens et bêtes furent couverts d’ulcères bourgeonnant en pustules […] » (Exode 9:8-12)
  7. La grêle : « […] Yahvé fit tomber la grêle sur le pays d’Égypte […] » (Exode 9:13-35)
  8. Les sauterelles : « […] Elles couvrirent la surface de toute la terre et la terre fut dans l’obscurité ; elles dévorèrent toutes les plantes de la terre et tous les fruits des arbres, tout ce que la grêle avait laissé et il ne resta aucune verdure aux arbres ni aux plantes des champs dans tout le pays d’Égypte […] » (Exode 10:13-14,19)
  9. Les ténèbres : « […] il y eut d’épaisses ténèbres […] » (Exode 10:21-29)
  10. La mort du premier-né : « […] tous les premiers-nés mourront dans le pays d’Égypte […] » (Exode 12:29-36)

Explications

   

Certaines de ces « plaies » peuvent trouver des explications naturelles, comme les eaux du fleuve changées en sang pourraient être l’impression d’un observateur voyant déferler les eaux de la crue annuelle chargées de sédiments de couleur ocre.

Certains scientifiques avancent l’explication suivante :

Les dix plaies d’Égypte seraient liées à une éruption volcanique de Santorin. Les ténèbres auraient été provoquées par les cendres volcaniques transportées par le vent vers le delta du Nil. En se dispersant dans le Nil, elles l’auraient contaminé, provoquant la mort des hommes et des troupeaux. Les cendres en suspension dans l’air auraient aussi déclenché la grêle (les particules en suspension contiennent de l’électricité statique), un phénomène que l’on rencontre aussi lors des tempêtes de sable. On en retrouve les traces sous forme d’une couche de cinq centimètres d’épaisseur dans le sol égyptien. Cette couche a été datée au carbone 14 à partir de deux éléments différents retrouvés en deux lieux différents. Un de ces éléments est une branche d’olivier avec des restes de feuilles ensevelies dans les cendres. Il ne faut pas oublier que l’éruption de Santorin a été colossale, dix ou cent fois plus puissante que celle du Krakatoa. Cette éruption a du se produire vers – 1600, date à laquelle le pharaon Ahmosis chassait les Hyksôs d’Égypte et sans doute avec eux les tribus sémites qui vivaient sous leur protection.

La détérioration des conditions sanitaires (manque d’eau, cadavres en décomposition…) amènerait les autres plaies de l’Égypte (poux, ulcères). L’eau changée en sang serait aussi expliquée par la couleur rougeâtre des cendres.

On peut également imaginer que l’épisode de la traversée de la mer Rouge est en fait celui de la traversée du goulet faisant communiquer la lagune Sabkhat al Bardawil, près d’Al Arish, avec la mer. Ce goulet aurait été submergé par le tsunami engendré par l’éruption, le phénomène décrit par la bible est typique d’un tsunami précédé d’une « sèche » où la mer semble se retirer. Mais ceci n’est qu’une hypothèse.

Culture populaire

Bryan Perro s’est inspiré des dix plaies d’Égypte pour créer son roman de la série d’Amos Daragon, Les dix plaies d’Enki.

Les dix plaies d’Égypte sont en partie mises en scène dans les films comme La Momie, Les Dix Commandements ou Les Châtiments un suspense de Stephen Hopkins, réalisé en 2007.

Une chanson de Metallica, Creeping Death sur Ride the Lightning, est inspirée des dix plaies d’Égypte.

Zehn Plagen

 

John Martin, Die 7. Plage, Kupferstich, 1828.

Die zehn biblischen Plagen oder Landplagen bezeichnen eine Reihe von Katastrophen, die nach der biblischen Erzählung etwa im 13. Jahrhundert v. Chr. das Land Ägypten plagten. Historisch ist die Überlieferung der Bibel nicht belegt, auch wenn dies über die Datierung von Vulkanausbrüchen versucht wurde, welche als ursprünglicher Auslöser für die Plagen von mehreren Wissenschaftlern angenommen werden.

Im 2. Buch Mose des Alten Testaments wird berichtet: Nachdem Mose eine Begegnung mit seinem Gott JHWH hatte, wurden er und Aaron von diesem nach Ägypten zurückgesandt, um das Volk Israel aus der Sklaverei zu führen. Der Pharao (vermutlich Ramses II., Merenptah oder Amenmesse) wollte sie jedoch nicht ziehen lassen. Nach jeder Weigerung schickt JHWH eine weitere Plage. Danach zogen die Israeliten durch das Schilfmeer, in dem hinter ihnen die sie verfolgenden ägyptischen Truppen samt dem Pharao ertranken.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

 

Liste der Zehn Plagen

  1. Wasser wird für sieben Tage ungenießbar: Mose und Aaron taten, wie ihnen der Herr geboten hatte, und Mose hob den Stab und schlug ins Wasser, das im Nil war, vor dem Pharao und seinen Großen. Und alles Wasser im Strom wurde in Blut verwandelt. (2 Mos 7,20 EU)
  2. Frösche wimmeln im Land: Und der Herr sprach zu Mose: Sage Aaron: strecke deine Hand aus mit deinem Stabe über die Ströme, Kanäle und Sümpfe und lass Frösche über Ägyptenland kommen. Und Aaron reckte seine Hand aus über die Wasser in Ägypten, und es kamen Frösche herauf, so dass Ägyptenland bedeckt wurde. (2 Mos 8,1 EU)
  3. Stechmücken plagen Mensch und Vieh: Sie taten so, und Aaron reckte seine Hand aus mit seinem Stabe und schlug in den Staub auf der Erde. Und es kamen Mücken und setzten sich an die Menschen und an das Vieh; aller Staub der Erde ward zu Mücken in ganz Ägyptenland. (2 Mos 8,13 EU)
  4. Stechfliegen (bei Luther: Ungeziefer) füllen alle Häuser: Und der Herr sprach zu Mose: Mach dich morgen früh auf und tritt vor den Pharao, wenn er hinaus ans Wasser geht, und sage zu ihm: So spricht der Herr: Lass mein Volk ziehen, dass es mir diene; wenn nicht, siehe, so will ich Stechfliegen kommen lassen über dich, deine Großen, dein Volk und dein Haus, dass die Häuser der Ägypter und das Land, auf dem sie wohnen, voller Stechfliegen werden sollen. (2 Mos 8,16 EU)
  5. Viehpest tötet alle Pferde, Kamele, Rinder, Schafe: Da sprach der Herr zu Mose: Geh hin zum Pharao und sage zu ihm: So spricht der Herr, der Gott der Hebräer: Lass mein Volk ziehen, dass sie mir dienen! Wenn du dich weigerst und sie weiter aufhältst, siehe, so wird die Hand des Herrn kommen über dein Vieh auf dem Felde, über die Pferde, Esel, Kamele, Rinder und Schafe, mit sehr schwerer Pest. (2 Mos 9,1 EU)
  6. Geschwüre (bei Luther: schwarze Blattern) befallen Mensch und Vieh: Und sie nahmen Ruß aus dem Ofen und traten vor den Pharao, und Mose warf den Ruß in den Himmel. Da brachen auf böse Blattern an den Menschen und am Vieh, so dass die Zauberer nicht vor Mose treten konnten wegen der bösen Blattern; denn es waren an den Zauberern ebenso böse Blattern wie an allen Ägyptern. (2 Mos 9,10 EU)
  7. Hagel tötet Mensch und Vieh, zerstört Ernte und Bäume: Da sprach der Herr zu Mose: Recke deine Hand aus gen Himmel, dass es hagelt über ganz Ägyptenland, über Menschen, über Vieh und über alles Gewächs auf dem Felde in Ägyptenland. (2 Mos 9,22 EU)
  8. Heuschrecken bedecken das Land und fressen alles Grün: Da sprach der Herr zu Mose: Recke deine Hand über Ägyptenland, dass Heuschrecken auf Ägyptenland kommen und alles auffressen, was im Lande wächst, alles, was der Hagel übriggelassen hat. (2 Mos 10,12 EU)
  9. Finsternis dauert drei Tage: Da sprach der Herr zu Mose: Recke deine Hand gen Himmel, dass eine solche Finsternis werde in Ägyptenland, dass man sie greifen kann. (2 Mos 10,21 EU)
  10. Erstgeborene von Mensch und Vieh sterben: Und Mose sprach: So spricht der Herr: Um Mitternacht will ich durch Ägyptenland gehen, und alle Erstgeburt in Ägyptenland soll sterben, vom ersten Sohn des Pharao an, der auf seinem Thron sitzt, bis zum ersten Sohn der Magd, die hinter ihrer Mühle hockt, und alle Erstgeburt unter dem Vieh. (2 Mos 11,4 EU)

Interpretation

Die Autoren beschreiben und dramatisieren mit den Plagen natürliche Vorgänge und Erfahrungen, um die Geschichte vom Auszug des Volkes Israel aus Ägypten vor einem großartigen Hintergrund zu erzählen. Dem Leser soll damit vermittelt werden, dass Gott Himmel und Erde in Bewegung setzt, um den Exodus in das Gelobte Land zu ermöglichen.

Vermutungen von Wissenschaftlern

Ob die Autoren viele einzelne Erfahrungen zu einem Schreckensszenario komprimierten oder das Alte Testament eine einzige gravierende Klimakatastrophe beschreibt, die eine ökologische Kettenreaktion auslöste, darüber gehen die Meinungen auseinander. Die Forscher gehen aber bei den ersten neun Plagen von realen Ereignissen aus.[1] [2]

  1. Wasser, die Rotfärbung des Wassers und das Sterben ist wahrscheinlich auf die roten Tiden (Algenart, z.B. der Gattung Alexandrum) zurückzuführen, die zugleich solche Giftmengen produzieren können, dass es zu massivem Fischsterben und Muschelvergiftungen kommt.
  2. Frösche: Der Nil war die Lebensader des ägyptischen Pharaonenreichs. Extreme Hochwasser und Dürreperioden brachten das sensible Ökosystem aber immer wieder aus dem Gleichgewicht, Sinkstoffe aus abessinischen Seen färbten den Nil rot: der Nil wurde zu einem Seuchenherd. Noch heute lassen sich im Nil Mikroorganismen nachweisen, die Fischsterben und Stressreaktionen bei Fröschen auslösen können. Auch ein Vulkanausbruch könnte nicht nur sauren Regen, sondern auch toxische Substanzen nach Ägypten gebracht haben.
  3. Stechmücken, durch das von den Algen ausgelöste Fischsterben fand die natürliche Regulation der Stechmückenbrut nicht mehr statt. Demzufolge entwickelten sie sich im Wasser des Nils ungehindert und wurden dann an Land zur Plage.
  4. Stechfliegen,
  5. Viehpest,
  6. Geschwüre: Überschwemmungen und die damit verbundene feuchtschwüle Witterung lockte Schwärme von Ungeziefer an, die Krankheiten auf Mensch und Tier übertrugen.
  7. Hagel Vulkanische Tätigkeit bringt Asche und Schwefel mit sich und verändert auch das Wetter-System. Aber auch völlig unabhängig davon kann es heute in Ägypten in den Monaten Januar und Februar zu Hagelschlag kommen. Starke Gewitter mit Hagelstürmen hinterließen eine beeindruckende Schneise der Zerstörung.
  8. Heuschrecken: Heuschrecken waren und sind in den Ländern des Orients keine Seltenheit, zurück blieb nach den Heuschreckenschwärmen nur Ödland.
  9. Finsternis: Die Finsternis wurde durch vulkanische Asche, einen Glutwind oder einen dramatischen Sandsturm hervorgerufen. Auch Heuschreckenschwärme verdunkeln den Himmel.
  10. Erstgeborene: Der Tod der Erstgeborenen passt nicht in den Rahmen der Naturkatastrophen. Forscher sehen in der Plage ein religiöses Symbol: Die Erstgeburt alles Bösen soll mit Stumpf und Stiel ausgerottet werden – eine Floskel, die auch im Nilland seit alters her bekannt war.

Darstellung in der Kunst

Wehklage über dem Sarg des Erstgeborenen am Hof des Pharao

Théophile Gautier beschrieb 1858 in seinem Buch Der Roman der Mumie die Entdeckung einer Mumie, die eine Rolle mit Hieroglyphen in der Hand trägt. Diese Hieroglyphen erzählten die Lebensgeschichte der Mumie, vom Leben einer bildhübschen Frau, die am Lebensende zu einer Mumie einbalsamiert wurde. Als junge Frau hatte sie die biblischen zehn Plagen miterlebt.

Jakob Steinhardt schuf 1921 in kleiner Auflage jeweils zehn Holzschnitte auf Japanpapier mit dem Titel “Die zehn Plagen”.

Einige der Plagen sind im Film Die Mumie zu sehen, nachdem die Mumie wiedererweckt wurde, nämlich folgende:

  • Heuschrecken (hier: nachdem die Mumie erweckt wurde)
  • Wasser, welches zu Blut wird (hier: die Getränke in einer Bar)
  • Stechfliegen
  • Geschwüre (hier: die “Armee” der Mumie)
  • Hagel (hier: vermutlich ein Kometen-/Feuer-Hagel)
  • Dunkelheit (hier: eine Sonnenfinsternis)

In dem Film Das Schreckenskabinett des Dr. Phibes mit Vincent Price rächt sich selbiger mit den Plagen an den Ärzten, die er für den Tod seiner Frau verantwortlich macht.

Das Lied “Creeping Death” der Metalband Metallica thematisiert den Auszug aus Ägypten und die damit verbundenen 10 Plagen. Wörtlich erwähnt werden die erste, die siebte, die neunte und die zehnte Plage (siehe Songtext).

Der Film Magnolia endet mit einem Schauer aus Fröschen.

Das englische Label 4AD veröffentlichte 2006 eine Compilation mit zehn Songs, die die Plagen thematisieren, mit Künstlern wie Scott Walker, Imogen Heap oder Rufus Wainwright.

Der Film The Reaping beinhaltet die zehn Plagen als Hauptthema. Die kleine Stadt Haven wird von allen Plagen heimgesucht und die Schuld wird einem kleinen Mädchen gegeben. Der Film bietet eine gute Visualisierung der Plagen, obwohl diese hier nicht in der korrekten Reihenfolge auftreten.

Georg Friedrich Händel verarbeitet die 10 Plagen im 1. Teil seines Oratoriums Israel in Egypt.

Siehe auch

Anmerkungen

  1. Werner Keller: Und die Bibel hat doch recht, S. 104ff, ISBN 978-3625105152
  2. Siro Igino Trevisanato: The Plagues of Egypt: Archaeology, History and Science Look at the Bible, ISBN 978-1593332341

Literatur

Hermann Levinson und Anna Levinson: Zur Biologie der zehn biblischen Plagen. in: DGaaE Nachrichten 22 (2008), 83-102.

Las diez plagas de Egipto

Las diez plagas de Egipto (מכות מצרים o Makot Mitzrayim) también conocidas simplemente como las diez plagas o las plagas bíblicas son una serie de calamidades que, según el Antiguo Testamento y la Torá, Dios infligió a los egipcios para que el faraón dejara partir a los hebreos de Egipto.
La narración aparece en el segundo libro del Antiguo Testamento y de la Torá, el Éxodo (en hebreo Shemot). Este libro describe como Moisés y Aarón aperciben al faraón que, de no liberar a su pueblo, Dios les castigaría, de manera sucesiva, con diez grandes males que caerían sobre Egipto. Conforme al relato, sólo después de los enormes padecimientos, el faraón autorizó que los israelitas abandonaran Egipto.

Pintura hecha por John Martin sobre la plaga de Granizo y Fuego (1823).

Contenido

 

El comienzo de las maldiciones (Éxodo 5:1-5:9, 7:8-7:13)

Moisés y Aarón se acercaron al Faraón, y le entregaron la demanda de Dios que exijia que los esclavos israelitas pudieran salir de Egipto a fin de que puedan adorar a Dios libremente.Tras una primera negativa del Faraón, Dios envió a Moisés y a Aarón de nuevo a mostrarle un milagroso signo de advertencia,- La vara de Aarón se convirtió en una serpiente. Los Brujos del Faraón también pudieron convertir una vara en serpiente, Aaron decidió irse pero antes de irse, su serpiente se trago a las serpientes de los brujos.

Las 10 Plagas

Sangre (Éxodo 7:14-7:25)

La primera plaga fue la de la sangre. Dios dio instrucciones a Moisés para que le diga a Aaron que levante su báculo sobre el río Nilo, todo el agua se convirtió en sangre. Como resultado de la sangre, los peces del Nilo murieron, Egipto se lleno de un olor nauseabundo. Otros recursos de agua utilizados por los egipcios se convirtieron así como el agua en sangre (7:19). Los hechiceros de Faraón demostrado que también puede convertir el agua en sangre, y el faraón, por lo tanto, no cedió ante las demandas de Moisés.

Ranas (Éxodo 7:25-8:11) צפרדע

La segunda plaga de Egipto ranas. Dios dio instrucciones a Moisés para que le diga a Aarón que estire vara sobre el agua, y hordas de ranas invadieron Egipto. Los hechiceros de Faraón fueron capaces de duplicar esta plaga con su magia. Sin embargo, dado que no pudieron eliminar la Plaga (las ranas),el Faraón se vio obligado a conceder el permiso de salir a los israelitas a Moisés, pero que el estaría de acuerdo para eliminar las ranas. Para demostrar que la plaga fue en realidad un castigo divino, Moisés dejo que el Faraón elija el tiempo en que terminaría esta plaga. El Faraón eligió el día siguiente, y todas las ranas murieron al día siguiente. Sin embargo, el Faraón revocó su autorización, y los Israelitas permanecieron en Egipto.

Mosquitos (Éxodo 8:16-8:19) כנים

La tercera plaga de Egipto fue Kinim, diversamente traducida como Mosquitos, Piojos o Pulgas. Dios instruyó a Moisés: “Dile a Aarón que tome su vara y golpee en el polvo.”, que se convirtió en una masa de mosquitos de la cual los Egipcios no podían deshacerse. Los Hechiceros Egipcios declararon que este acto fue el “Dedo de Dios” y fueron incapaces de reproducir sus efectos con su magia.

Animales Silvestres (Ex. 8:20 8:32) עָרוֹב

La cuarta plaga de Egipto fueron los animales salvajes, capaz de dañar personas y ganado. La Torá subraya que el arov (enjambre) sólo vinieron contra los Egipcios, y que no afectó a la Tierra de Gosén (donde los Israelitas vivían). El Faraón le pidió a Moisés que eliminase esa plaga y prometió permitir a los israelitas la libertad. Sin embargo, después de que la plaga desapareciera, el Faraón “endureció su corazón” y se negó nuevamente a mantener su promesa.

Pestilencia (Ex. 9:1 9:7) דֶּבֶר

La quinta plaga de Egipto fueron unas enfermedades epidémicas que exterminaron a los ganados Egipcios; ya sean, caballos, burros, camellos, vacas, ovejas o cabras. El ganado israelita resultó ileso. Una vez más, el Faraón no hizo concesiones.

Úlceras y Sarpullido Incurable(Ex. 9:8 9:12) שְׁחִין

La sexta plaga de Egipto fue shkhin. El Shkhin fue una especie de enfermedad de la piel, suele traducirse como “Úlcera” o “Sarpullido“. Dios le dijo a Moisés y Aarón que cada uno tomase dos puñados de hollín de un horno, que Moisés dispersó en el cielo en presencia del Faraón . El hollín provocó Shkhin (úlceras) en el pueblo y ganado Egipcio. Los hechiceros Egipcios fueron afectados junto con todos los demás y fueron incapaces de sanarse, mucho menos el resto de Egipto.

Granizo de fuego y hielo (Ex. 9:13 9:35) בָּרָד

La séptima plaga de Egipto fue una destructiva tormenta. Dios le dijo a Moisés que estirase su vara hacia el cielo, punto en el cual la tormenta comenzó. Era incluso más sobrenatural que la plaga anterior, una poderosa ducha de granizo mezclada con fuego. La tormenta dañó gravemente a los huertos y cultivos egipcios, así como personas y ganado. La tormenta azotó todo Egipto excepto por la Tierra de Gosén . El Faraón le pidió a Moisés eliminar esta plaga y prometió permitir a los Israelitas adorar a Dios en el desierto, diciendo que “este tiempo he pecado; Dios es justo, yo y mi pueblo somos malvados.”. Como una demostración de dominio de Dios sobre el mundo, la lluvia se detuvo tan pronto como Moisés comenzó a orar a Dios. Sin embargo, después de la tormenta cesó, el Faraón de nuevo “endureció su corazón” y se negó a mantener su promesa.

Langostas (Ex. 10:1 10:20) אַרְבֶּה

La octava plaga de Egipto fueron las langostas. Antes de la plaga, Moisés llegó al faraón y le advirtió de la inminente plaga de langostas al Faraón, los funcionarios del Faraón le suplicaron que permitiera que los Israelitas fueran libres, ya que iban a sufrir los efectos devastadores de una plaga de langostas, pero aún era renuente a ceder. El orador propone un compromiso: Los Hombres Israelitas serían autorizados a marchar, mientras que las mujeres, niños y ganado se quedarían en Egipto. Moisés demandó que cada persona y animal debía irse, pero el Faraón se negó.

Dios entonces le dijo a Moisés que estirase su vara sobre Egipto y recogió un viento del este. El viento se mantuvo hasta el día siguiente, cuando se trajo un enjambre de langostas. La nube cubrió el cielo, arrojó sombras sobre Egipto, y consumió el resto de los cultivos egipcios, dejando ningún árbol o planta. El Faraón volvió a pedirle a Moisés que eliminase esta plaga y se comprometió a permitir que todos los israelitas a adorar a Dios en el desierto. La plaga desapareció pero no permitió a los israelitas salir.

Oscuridad (Éxodo 10:21-10:29) חושך

En la novena plaga, Dios le dijo a Moisés que estirase sus manos al cielo, para que la oscuridad caiga sobre Egipto. Esta oscuridad era tan pesada que un egipcio podía físicamente sentirlo. Duró tres días, tiempo durante el cual no hubo luz, solo en las casas de los israelitas. El Faraón entonces llamó a Moisés y dijo que dejaría salir a todos los Israelitas, si las tinieblas eran retiradas de su tierra. Sin embargo, exigió que las ovejas y vacas se quedasen; Moisés lo negó y dijo que en poco tiempo. El Faraón ofrecería a proporcionar animales para el sacrificio. El Faraón, indignado, amenazó con ejecutar a Moisés si volvía a aparecer ante el faraón. Moisés contestó en efecto que no visitaría al Faraón nuevamente

Esta plaga era un ataque directamente al Faraón, ya que Ra, era el dios Egipcio del Sol. La introducción de la plaga de oscuridad hizo a Moisés demostrar que su Dios era más poderoso.

Muerte de los primogénitos (Éxodo 11:1-12:36) מכת בכורות

La décima y última plaga de Egipto fue la muerte de todos los primogénitos de Egipto -nadie escapaba, desde el más bajo funcionario hasta el propio primer hijo del Faraón incluyendo los primogénitos del ganado. Antes de dicha plaga, Dios mandó a Moisés a informar a todos los israelitas de la marca del cordero que deberían poner en sus puertas, en cuyo caso Jehova (Yahve en Hebreo no el ángel de la muerte como comúnmente se pensaba – ver Éxodo 12:12-13) pasará sobre ellos, por lo tanto, evitar que todos los primeros nacidos israelitas murieran. Este fue el más duro golpe a Egipto y la plaga que finalmente convenció al Faraón de liberar a los israelitas.
Después de esto, el Faraón, furioso y triste, ordenó a los israelitas a desaparecer, tomando lo que querían. Los israelitas no vacilaron y al final de esa noche los llevó a Moisés de Egipto con “armas erige”.

Obama acts

January 23, 2009

I am happy that Obama is acting at the international level. May he contribute for the peace in the world!

NOVO KORAR

January 22, 2009

*Fr.Ivo da Conceicao SOUZA

1.1: Zhuzachea kallar ami jietat. Zhuzachim kallim-kitt kirnam raxtranchea mollbar manddleant. Ken’na vixv-zhuz suru zait, hem konnoch nokllo. Hea velar ami xantiche koblatichi khobor kortat. Korar raxttram modhim.

1.2: Abraham bhavartacho bapui.

1.3: Kristanvponn mhonnllear nhesnnancher, nanvancher ani ritichalincher dhorlolem-thaplolem na, oxem ami gel’le khepim mhonnlam. Novenam ani festam, ostomtechim novlam ani chaliriti, hancher Kristanvponnn dhorlolem na. Heo sogleo bhaileo vostu mhonnlear bhitorle novsornnecheo khunna. Bovall, chodd prarthnam, upas, fogetti-hem soglem bhailean amcho on’bhov ucharunk zai, ponn zor tor soglem korun bhitorli, kallzachi akharnni na, zalear soglem om’tea kollxear udok, ddo-ddo-fo…

2.1: Jezuche govai zanvk amam somestank apovnnem asa. Kosloi amcho vavr zavm, ami Jezuche xis. Jezuchea Xubhvortomanachea uzvadda-bollan ami amchem xubhvortoman boroitat. Amchi vatt uxir, ponn sukhak vhorta tosli vatt. Jezuchi adnea mhonnlear mogachi adnea: “Ekamekacho mog korat, jeporim hanvem kela tumcho” (Ju 13:34, hea vak’keant “jeporim” mhonnche Jezu nhoinch amcho namunno, ponn hea deivik mogachi zhor). Ponn hi mogachi adnea sompi nhoi. Zhodd-moskil adnea tantunt atthaploleo asat: “Hanv tumkam khoreponnim sangtam: Gonvacho konno/gotto zom’nnir poddon morona, zalear to eksuro urta, ponn to morot, zalear bhorpur foll/pik dita” (Ju 12:24). “Zor tor konnoi mhozo patthlav korunk sodit, zalear tannem apnnakoch path korchi, aplo khuris vengoicho ani mhojea patthlean ienvchem” ( Mk 8:34). “Tumchea dusmanancho mog korat ani tumcho dves kortoleank borem kor” (Lk 6:27). “Konnak poilo zanvchi khoxi asot, zalear tannem sogleam poros nimanno ani sogleancho chakor zanvcho” (Mk 9:35). Jezuchim totvam amchea soimachim nhoi, tim amkam man’nant zait, ponn tim amkam khoro-niz rosto dakhoitat: mogacho, sukhacho rosto.

2.2: Amchea jivitachem xubhvortoman khup lok vachta, jim konn Jezuchem Xubhvortoman vachinant, tim porean chotraen amkam polletat ani amchi topasnni kortat. Him Kristi mon’xam koxim jietat, mogan vo dusman’kaen? Hem pollevn amchea dhormachi topasnni tim kortat. Okristi mon’xam poilea Kristanvank pollevn, oxem mhonntalim: “Polleiat, tim koxim ekamekacho mog kortat, ekamekak bogxitat” (Tertullian, Apologetikon 39:7).

2.3: Amcho nichev zavm di: Ami soglim eka monachim, eka kallzachim zanvk zai. Amchem jivit mhonnlear Devachea mogacho arso koso sogleanchea dolleam mukhar porzollunk zai. Amchem Kristanvponn Kristi mona vorvim dusreank uzvadd-pormoll zavm-di!

COURAGE TO BE

January 22, 2009

*Dr.Ivo da Conceicao Souza

Introduction:

In this topsy-turvy world we need courage.

Definition of Courage:

We need courage to be, to live, speak, to act as men, Christians, as priests, as formators, as leaders.

Courage is a useful concept for the analysis of the human situation, of our existence as a human being, as a Christian, as a Christian leader.

Courage is an ethical reality, but it is rooted in the whole breadth of human existence and ultimately in the structure of being itself. It must be considered ontologically in order to be understood ethically. Since the moral/ethical character of courage remains incomprehensible without its ontological character, let us have a glance throughout.

Socrates had stated that “we have failed to discover that courage really is”; and according to him, virtue is knowledge, and ignorance about what courage is makes any action in accordance with the true nature of courage impossible.

Paul Tillich in his book The Courage to Be unites both meanings of the concept of courage, the ethical and the ontological. Courage as a human act, as a mater of evaluation, is an ethical concept. Courage as the universal and essential self-affirmation of one’s being is an ontological concept. The courage to be is the ethical act in which affirms his own being in spite of those elements of his existence which conflict with his essential self-affirmation.

Courage is to act for the sake of what is noble, beautiful, praised and to reject what is to be despised. What is noble and praiseworthy actualizes the perfections of the being and fulfills its potentialities. Courage is the affirmation of one’s essential nature, in spite of fat and death. It is a matter of the heart (from coeur, cor; kallji, kalljidar). The greatest test f cordage is the readiness o sacrifice one’s life. The Greek word for courage, andreia (from aner, andros, manliness) or Latin word fortitudo (strength) indicate the military connotation of courage (soldier’s courage). This ‘venturing courage’ would be called in religious terms “risk of faith”. The courage to be is the courage to affirm our own rational nature, in spite of everything in it that conflicts with its union with the rational nature, in spite of all doubts, vicissitudes and hesitation.

SARS AND ECO-THEOLOGY

January 22, 2009

COURAGE TO BE

January 22, 2009

*Dr.Ivo da Conceicao Souza

Introduction: In this topsy-turvy world we need courage. Definition of Courage: We need courage to be, to live, speak, to act as men, Christians, as priests, as formators, as leaders. Courage is a useful concept for the analysis of the human situation, of our existence as a human being, as a Christian, as a Christian leader. Courage is an ethical reality, but it is rooted in the whole breadth of human existence and ultimately in the structure of being itself. It must be considered ontologically in order to be understood ethically. Since the moral/ethical character of courage remains incomprehensible without its ontological character, let us have a glance throughout. Socrates had stated that “we have failed to discover that courage really is”; and according to him, virtue is knowledge, and ignorance about what courage is makes any action in accordance with the true nature of courage impossible. Paul Tillich in his book The Courage to Be unites both meanings of the concept of courage, the ethical and the ontological. Courage as a human act, as a mater of evaluation, is an ethical concept. Courage as the universal and essential self-affirmation of one’s being is an ontological concept. The courage to be is the ethical act in which affirms his own being in spite of those elements of his existence which conflict with his essential self-affirmation. Courage is to act for the sake of what is noble, beautiful, praised and to reject what is to be despised. What is noble and praiseworthy actualizes the perfections of the being and fulfills its potentialities. Courage is the affirmation of one’s essential nature, in spite of fat and death. It is a matter of the heart (from coeur, cor; kallji, kalljidar). The greatest test f cordage is the readiness o sacrifice one’s life. The Greek word for courage, andreia (from aner, andros, manliness) or Latin word fortitudo (strength) indicate the military connotation of courage (soldier’s courage). This ‘venturing courage’ would be called in religious terms “risk of faith”. The courage to be is the courage to affirm our own rational nature, in spite of everything in it that conflicts with its union with the rational nature, in spite of all doubts, vicissitudes and hesitation.

Jivitachi Sonvskrutai

January 19, 2009

*Fr.Ivo da Conceiçao SOUZA

(Povitr Atmeache Firgojent, Moddganv)

Prostavna: Azkal jivitak man na. Mon’xall jivit poreant bhovoch sovai zalam. Grestkai-dovlot choddlea, bhangar-xrungar vaddlam, ponn mon’xachi kimot dhenvot veta. Monis sovai zala. Khuni-krimi-chorio mottea promannan vaddot vetat. Jivitachem mol ani mhotv novean amche nodrent ievunk zai. Rogot mhollear jivit, rogtachem mol novean choddonk zai. Rogtachem mol, jivitachem mol, mon’xachem mol jivitache sonvskrutaechi bunead, oslo nihall kholaen korpacho vell pavla.

Jivit ani Dev:

Dev mhollear Jivit (polle Jer 2:13). Dev Jivitachi Zhor (Sutt 3:14; Jr 1:20; Ez 33:11). Dev Rochnnar (St 104:30), tannem mon’xak aple rochnne-podvent (creative power) vantto dila, taka jivitacho svas dila (Ut 2:7). Jivit mhollear Devachem dennem (Jb 10:12). Dev nhoich Jivitachi Zhor, bogor Jivitacho Dhoni—taka jivita voyr podvi asa (DS 32:39). Dev jivit ani jivitachem chokr (cycle of life) chalu dovorta. Dev jivit vo mornn vinchun kaddunk apoita (DS 30:15-20). Devachea Korarak chikttun ravon, mon’xan jivit vinchun kaddum ieta. Jivit teach borabor sasnnik jivitachem (vo soddvonnechem) dennem. Israel raxttrant jivit Korarachea sondorba bhitor (in the covenantal context) somzum ietalem. Jivitak mol asa, lamb auk Devachem darzonnem (DS 5:16; 30:15.19).

Adlea Korarant jivita ani uzvadda modhim barik-uxir soirigot asa. Jivita-asnneacho niz-unch orth mellche khatir mon’xan Devacho uzvadd pollevunk zai. Dev aple ap-proghottnne vorvim dita, tea uzvadda vorvim mon’xachea jivitacho niz-khoro orth mellta. Devakodde kel’lea Korarachea uzvaddan mon’xall jivitachem khorem soim’ tthavem zata.

Mornna uprant jivit asa mhonn heach sombondhan spoxtt zata. Hea Korarant vantto ghetat, te Devak, Mornnachea Dhoniak, on’bhovtat.

Jezu ani Jivit: Novea Korarant, mon’xall jivit sori korunk zaina toslem bhanddar. Devachea Rajachem xastr (ethics of the Kingdom of God) priti-mogacher dhorlolem-thaplolem asa. Aplea peleak adhar nhoikarunk mhollear Devache Somurticher add vochunk (Lk 10:30).

Jezu mhollear “Vatt, Sot ani Jivit” (Ju 14:6). To “Punorjivontponn ani Jivit” (Ju 11:25). Devachea Rajeant rig ghevunk mhollear Jivitant bhitor sorunk. Devachem Raj ani Jivit Xubhvortomanamni ekach orthan ietat. Jezu amkam jivit subham’ponnan divunk aila (Ju 10:10). Israel projek gulam’ponnantli suttoiloli (Sutt 6:6), techporim Jezu, Soddvonnar, amkam patka-vaittantli suttoita.

Povitr Pustokantlo Dev mhollear jivitacho Dev, to “mel’leancho Dev nhoi, ponn jiveancho Dev” (Mt 22:32). Povitr Pustok jivitachea totvamni suru zata ani xevttak pavta (polle Ut 1:3-4; Prok 21:4; 22:5). Povitr Pustokachi tenkxi mhollear rochnnechi sopurnai–kallokh na, koxtt na, mornn na–jivo Dev sasnnak rajvott choloitolo. Jivita add veta, titlem-i Dev tiche sorxili poisaita: gulam’ponn, pillnnuk, broxttachar, hin’sa, dukh ani koxtt, onit ani vegllochar. Ho vavr Jezucho, to “Mesiah, Jivea Devacho Put” (Mt 16:16). Hoch Povitr-sobhecho vavr, hench tichem apovnnem.

Jezuchem punorjivontponn mhollear sasnnik jivitachea bhorvanxeachi bunead (1 Pd 1:3). Jezu Jivitacho Kunvor, tannem khursar morun ani jivont zavn, jivit haddlem (2 Tim 1:10). To Jivitacho Unddo (Ju 6:35.48), Jivitachem Udok (Ju 4:10; 7:38), tache sovem Jivitachim Utram asat (Ju 6:68), tachim utram mhollear Otmo ani Jivit (Ju 6:63), to mon’xank Jivit divunk aila (Ju 6:33; 10:10). Ami jivitant ani promannikponnan cholunk-jievunk zai (Rm 6:4). Deivik jivitant vantto ghevun, ami ek dis Devachi mhoima ruprup polletelet (1 Kor 13:12; cf.2 Kor 5:7). Xevttim, sasnnik jivit mhollear Devachea sombondhan jietolo bhavartacho somudai.

Sompadnni: Sorvxevttim, Devachem Utor amcheach jivita vexim uzvadd dita, amchem vorteponn gaita. Ghorabeam vorvim amim mon’xall vorteponn samballunk zai. Amchea ghorabeanchem durdoiv mhollear mon’xaponn grestkae-dovlotik ani bhangar-xrungarak vikhunk. Amche ddolle ugte korum-ia: mornnachi sonvskrutai poisavum-ia, jivitachi sonvskrutai vikasum-ia, mon’xallaen ani povitrtaen vaddom-ia…