Archive for the ‘value philosophy’ Category

Max Scheler (1874-1928)

February 5, 2009

Scheler, Max (1874-1928) was originally a disciple of Rudolf Eucken, but joined early — at the University of Munich — the Husserl circle of phenomenologists, of which school he became one of the leading exponents. Moving from Kantianism and Eucken-personalism into phenomenology, he later espoused successively positions which may be called a synthesis between phenomenology and Catholic philosophy, sociological dynamism, and ideo-realistic humanism. He was the psychologist, ethicist, and religious and social philosopher of the phenomenological movement. In common with other phenomenologists, Scheler’s doctrine begins with the assertion of an inherent correlation of the essences of objects with the essences of intentional experience. His unique contributions lie in the comprehensiveness of his vision, in his interpretation of the value-qualities of being; of emotional experience, especially love, as the key for the disclosure of being; of a hierarchy of concrete (“material” as against formal) values; of an analysis of “resentment” as a thorough grudge (rancour) perverted emotional attitude towards the values of life; of his definition of “person” as the concrete unity of acts; of his acknowledgment of total personality beyond individual persons; of his definition of “ethos” as a preferential system of values determinative for the validity of any specific thought-form; of his development of the sociology of knowledge as a distinct discipline within cultural sociology; and of his working out of a philosophical anthropology showing man’s position in and towards the whole of being. His most important works include:

Die transzendentale und die psychologische Methode (1900);
Der Formalismus in der Ethik und die materiale Wertethik (1916);
Vom Ewigen in Menschen (1921); Wesen und Formen der Sympathie (1923);
Schriften zur Soziologie und Weltanschauungslehre (3 vols., 1923-1924);
Die Wissensformen und dte Gesellschaft (1926);
Die Stellung des Menschen in Kosmos (1928);
Philosophische Weltanschauung (1929);
Zur Ethik und Erkenntnislehre (1933).